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Intensive Care Medicine

, Volume 44, Issue 10, pp 1669–1678 | Cite as

Time trends in the reporting of conflicts of interest, funding and affiliation with industry in intensive care research: a systematic review

  • Michael Darmon
  • Julie Helms
  • Audrey De Jong
  • Peter Buhl Hjortrup
  • Emmanuel Weiss
  • Anders Granholm
  • Riccardo Pinciroli
  • Charlotte Poussardin
  • Marie Warrer Petersen
  • Stéphanie Sigaut
  • Bruna Brandao Barreto
  • Morten Hylander Moller
  • Elie Azoulay
Systematic Review

Abstract

Purpose

Conflict of interest (COI) may compromise, or have the appearance of compromising, a researcher’s judgment or integrity in conducting or reporting research. We sought to assess time trends of COI and funding statement reporting in the critical care literature.

Methods

PubMed was searched by using Medical Subject Headings and the appropriate corresponding keywords: “INTENSIVE CARE UNIT” or “ICU” as a major topic. Four years in a 15-year time period (2001–2016) were arbitrarily chosen and one study month was randomly selected for each study period. Studies published during the selected months were included in the analysis.

Results

Three hundred and seventy-four studies were evaluated, including five reviews (1.3%) and ten randomized clinical trials (RCTs) (2.7%). COI statements were available in 65% of the studies and 8% had declared COI. COI statement rate, declared COI and funding statements increased over time, while the number of authors affiliated with industry and the discordance between the lack of COI statement and affiliation with industry decreased. Declared COI were more frequent in 2011–2016 as compared to 2001–2010 (OR 4.06; 95% CI 1.15–25.79) and in the higher quartile of a journal’s impact factor (OR of 16.73; 95% CI 3.28–306.20). Surprisingly, focus of the study, country of the first author and/or endorsement of the study by a trial group were not associated with COI statements.

Conclusion

Our study suggests COI reporting to have been unintuitive to most investigators and unreliable before ICMJE statements, and that strong incentives are needed to implement adequate reporting of COI.

Keywords

Bibliometrics Conflicts of interest Disclosure/statistics and numerical data Editorial policies Journal impact factor Periodicals as topic/standards Bias 

Abbreviations

CI

Confidence interval

COI

Conflict of interest

ICMJE

International Committee of Medical Journal Editors

ICU

Intensive care unit

IF

Impact factor

IOM

Institute of Medicine

IQR

Interquartile range

RCT

Randomized clinical trial

MESH

Medical subject headings

OR

Odds ratio

PRISMA

Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses

ROC

Receiver operating characteristic

SE

Standard error

SR/MA

Systematic review/meta-analysis

WAME

World Association of Medical Editors

Notes

Funding

None.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

A De Jong reports personal fees from Baxter and Medtronic-Covidien, and travel reimbursements from Fresenius-Kabi, MSD France, Astellas, Pfizer and Fisher Paykel. J. Helms reports congress and travel reimbursements from Pfizer, Diagnostica Stago, MSD France, Astrazeneca and Gilead Sciences. E. Weiss reports personal fees form Baxter, MSD France and Biomerieux, and travel reimbursements from MSD France and Eumedica. M. Darmon reports having received research support from MSD and from ASTUTE medical, speaker fees from MSD, Astellas and Bristol-Myers-Squibb, support to organize educational meeting from MSD, Astellas, and Jazz Pharma and having participated to an advisory board from SANOFI-AVENTIS. M. Hylander Møller, N. Buhl Hjortrup, A. Granholm and M. Warrer Petersen declare that their department has received research grants from Fresenius Kabi, CSL Bering and Ferring Pharmaceuticals. Elie Azoulay reports having received fees for lectures from Alexion, Gilead, and Baxter. His institution and research group have received support from Fisher & Payckle, Pfizer, Ablkynx, MSD and Jazz Pharma. Other authors declare having no COI to declare.

Supplementary material

134_2018_5350_MOESM1_ESM.docx (174 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 133 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature and ESICM 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Darmon
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Julie Helms
    • 4
    • 5
  • Audrey De Jong
    • 1
    • 6
  • Peter Buhl Hjortrup
    • 7
    • 8
  • Emmanuel Weiss
    • 9
    • 2
  • Anders Granholm
    • 7
  • Riccardo Pinciroli
    • 10
  • Charlotte Poussardin
    • 4
  • Marie Warrer Petersen
    • 7
  • Stéphanie Sigaut
    • 8
  • Bruna Brandao Barreto
    • 1
    • 11
  • Morten Hylander Moller
    • 7
  • Elie Azoulay
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Medical ICUSaint-Louis University Hospital, AP-HPParisFrance
  2. 2.Faculté de MédecineUniversité Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne-Paris-CitéParisFrance
  3. 3.ECSTRA team, Biostatistics and clinical epidemiologyUMR 1153 (center of epidemiology and biostatistic Sorbonne Paris Cité, CRESS), INSERMParisFrance
  4. 4.Faculté de Médecine, Hôpitaux universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de réanimationNouvel Hôpital Civil, Université de Strasbourg (UNISTRA)StrasbourgFrance
  5. 5.ImmunoRhumatologie Moléculaire, INSERM UMR_S1109, LabEx TRANSPLANTEX, Centre de Recherche d’Immunologie et d’Hématologie, Faculté de Médecine, Fédération Hospitalo-Universitaire (FHU) OMICARE, Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg (FMTS)Université de StrasbourgStrasbourgFrance
  6. 6.PhyMedExp, INSERM, CNRS, CHU de Montpellier, Département d’anesthésie-réanimation Saint-EloiUniversité de MontpellierMontpellier CedexFrance
  7. 7.Department of Intensive CareCopenhagen University Hospital-RigshospitaletCopenhagenDenmark
  8. 8.Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive CareZealand University HospitalKøgeDenmark
  9. 9.Department of Anesthesia and Critical CareBeaujon University Hospital, AP-HPParisFrance
  10. 10.Department of Anesthesia and Critical CareNiguarda Hospital, University of Milan-BicoccaMilanItaly
  11. 11.Intensive Care UnitHospital da MulherSalvadorBrazil

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