Advertisement

Intensive Care Medicine

, Volume 44, Issue 6, pp 760–773 | Cite as

Management of cardiogenic shock complicating myocardial infarction

  • Alexandre Mebazaa
  • Alain Combes
  • Sean van Diepen
  • Alexa Hollinger
  • Jaon N. Katz
  • Giovanni Landoni
  • Ludhmila Abrahao Hajjar
  • Johan Lassus
  • Guillaume Lebreton
  • Gilles Montalescot
  • Jin Joo Park
  • Susanna Price
  • Alessandro Sionis
  • Demetris Yannopolos
  • Veli-Pekka Harjola
  • Bruno Levy
  • Holger Thiele
Review

Abstract

Up to 10% of acute coronary syndromes are complicated by cardiogenic shock (CS) with contemporary mortality rates of 40–50%. The extent of ischemic myocardium has a profound impact on the initial, in-hospital, and post-discharge management and prognosis in this patient population. Individualized patient risk assessment plays an important role in determining appropriate revascularization, drug treatment with inotropes and vasopressors, mechanical circulatory support, intensive care support of other organ systems, hospital level of care triage, and allocation of clinical resources. This review will outline the underlying causes and diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology, and treatment of CS complicating acute coronary syndromes with a focus on (a) potential therapeutic issues from the perspective an interventional cardiologist, an emergency physician, and an intensive care physician, (b) the type of revascularization, and (c) new therapeutic advancements in pharmacologic and mechanical percutaneous circulatory support.

Keywords

Acute myocardial infarction Cardiogenic shock Catecholamines Mechanical circulatory support 

Abbreviations

AHA

American Heart Association

AKI

Acute kidney injury

ALT

Alanine aminotransferase

AMI

Acute myocardial infarction

AST

Aspartate aminotransferase

BP

Blood pressure

CABG

Coronary artery bypass graft

CCU

Coronary care unit

CI

Cardiac index

CVP

Central venous pressure

CS

Cardiogenic shock

ECG

Electrocardiography

ECLS

Extracorporeal circulatory life support

ECMO

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

ERC

European Resuscitation Council

ESC

European Society of Cardiology

ESICM

European Society of Intensive Care Medicine

IABP

Intra-aortic balloon pump

ICU

Intensive care unit

KDIGO

Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes

LV

Left ventricle

MAP

Mean arterial pressure

MCS

Mechanical circulatory support

MV

Mechanical ventilation

NE

Norepinephrine

NIV

Non-invasive ventilation

NSTE-ACS

Non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome

OHCA

Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

PAC

Pulmonary artery catheter

PCI

Percutaneous coronary intervention

RCT

Randomized controlled trial

RRT

Renal replacement therapy

RV

Right ventricle

ST2

Suppression of tumorigenicity 2

STEMI

ST-elevation myocardial infarction

TIMI

Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction

TTM

Targeted temperature management

VA-ECMO

Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

VSD

Ventricular septal defect

VSR

Ventricular septal rupture

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

AM received lecture fees from Novartis, Orion, and Abbott, research grants from Roche, and consultant fees from Servier and Sanofi. GL received speaker fees from Orion, Abbvie, and Tenax (companies producing or commercializing levosimendan). BL received lecture fees from Pulsion, Baxter, Orion, and Lilly, and consultant fees from Novartis, Orion, and Baxter. Other coauthors have no conflicts to declare.

Supplementary material

134_2018_5214_MOESM1_ESM.docx (12 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 11 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Ponikowski P, Voors AA, Anker SD, Bueno H, Cleland JG, Coats AJ, Falk V, Gonzalez-Juanatey JR, Harjola VP, Jankowska EA et al (2016) 2016 ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure: the Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Developed with the special contribution of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC. Eur J Heart Fail 18(8):891–975CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ibanez B, James S, Agewall S, Antunes MJ, Bucciarelli-Ducci C, Bueno H, Caforio ALP, Crea F, Goudevenos JA, Halvorsen S et al (2018) 2017 ESC guidelines for the management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation: the Task Force for the management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 39(2):119–177CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    van Diepen S, Katz JN, Albert NM, Henry TD, Jacobs AK, Kapur NK, Kilic A, Menon V, Ohman EM, Sweitzer NK et al (2017) Contemporary management of cardiogenic shock: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 136(16):e232–e268CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mebazaa A, Tolppanen H, Mueller C, Lassus J, DiSomma S, Baksyte G, Cecconi M, Choi DJ, Cohen Solal A, Christ M et al (2016) Acute heart failure and cardiogenic shock: a multidisciplinary practical guidance. Intensive Care Med 42(2):147–163CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Thiele H, Ohman EM, Desch S, Eitel I, de Waha S (2015) Management of cardiogenic shock. Eur Heart J 36(20):1223–1230CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Furer A, Wessler J, Burkhoff D (2017) Hemodynamics of cardiogenic shock. Interv Cardiol Clin 6(3):359–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Menon V, Slater JN, White HD, Sleeper LA, Cocke T, Hochman JS (2000) Acute myocardial infarction complicated by systemic hypoperfusion without hypotension: report of the SHOCK trial registry. Am J Med 108(5):374–380CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jeger RV, Radovanovic D, Hunziker PR, Pfisterer ME, Stauffer JC, Erne P, Urban P (2008) Ten-year incidence and treatment of cardiogenic shock. Ann Intern Med 149:618–626CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hochman JS et al (2000) Cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction--etiologies, management and outcome: a report from the SHOCK Trial Registry. SHould we emergently revascularize Occluded Coronaries for cardiogenic shocK? J Am Coll Cardiol 36(3 Suppl A):1063–1070 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zannad F, Mebazaa A, Juilliere Y, Cohen-Solal A, Guize L, Alla F, Rouge P, Blin P, Barlet MH, Paolozzi L et al (2006) Clinical profile, contemporary management and one-year mortality in patients with severe acute heart failure syndromes: the EFICA study. Eur J Heart Fail 8(7):697–705CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shah RU, de Lemos JA, Wang TY, Chen AY, Thomas L, Sutton NR, Fang JC, Scirica BM, Henry TD, Granger CB (2016) Post-hospital outcomes of patients with acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock: findings from the NCDR. J Am Coll Cardiol 67(7):739–747CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sleeper LA, Reynolds HR, White HD, Webb JG, Dzavik V, Hochman JS (2010) A severity scoring system for risk assessment of patients with cardiogenic shock: a report from the SHOCK trial and registry. Am Heart J 160(3):443–450CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Harjola VP, Lassus J, Sionis A, Kober L, Tarvasmaki T, Spinar J, Parissis J, Banaszewski M, Silva-Cardoso J, Carubelli V et al (2015) Clinical picture and risk prediction of short-term mortality in cardiogenic shock. Eur J Heart Fail 17(5):501–509CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Poss J, Koster J, Fuernau G, Eitel I, de Waha S, Ouarrak T, Lassus J, Harjola VP, Zeymer U, Thiele H et al (2017) Risk stratification for patients in cardiogenic shock after acute myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 69(15):1913–1920CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hochman JS, Sleeper LA, Webb JG, Sanborn TA, White HD, Talley JD, Buller CE, Jacobs AK, Slater JN, Col J et al (1999) Early revascularization in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock. SHOCK investigators. Should we emergently revascularize occluded coronaries for cardiogenic shock. N Engl J Med 341(9):625–634CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hochman JS, Sleeper LA, Webb JG, Dzavik V, Buller CE, Aylward PE, Col J, White HD (2006) Early revascularization and long-term survival in cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. JAMA 295:2511–2515CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Roffi M, Patrono C, Collet J-P, Mueller C, Valgimigli M, Andreotti F, Bax JJ, Borger MA, Brotons C, Chew DP et al (2016) 2015 ESC guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation. Task Force for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 37(3):267–315CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Goldberg RJ, Spencer FA, Gore JM, Lessard D, Yarzebski J (2009) Thirty-year trends (1975 to 2005) in the magnitude of, management of, and hospital death rates associated with cardiogenic shock in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a population-based perspective. Circulation 119(9):1211–1219CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Awad HH, Anderson FA Jr, Gore JM, Goodman SG, Goldberg RJ (2012) Cardiogenic shock complicating acute coronary syndromes: insights from the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events. Am Heart J 163(6):963–971CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Aissaoui N, Puymirat E, Tabone X, Charbonnier B, Schiele F, Lefevre T, Durand E, Blanchard D, Simon T, Cambou J-P et al (2012) Improved outcome of cardiogenic shock at the acute stage of myocardial infarction: a report from the USIK 1995, USIC 2000, and FAST-MI French nationwide registries. Eur Heart J 33(20):2535–2543CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    de Waha S, Jobs A, Pöss J, Stiermaier T, Fuernau G, Eitel I, Zeymer U, Desch S, Thiele H (2018) Multivessel versus culprit lesion only percutaneous coronary intervention in cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Heart J 7:28–37Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kolte D, Sardar P, Khera S, Zeymer U, Thiele H, Hochadel M, Radovanovic D, Erne P, Hambraeus K, James S et al (2017) Culprit vessel only versus multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with cardiogenic shock complicating ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a collaborative meta-analysis. Circulation 10(10):e005582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Thiele H, Akin I, Sandri M, Fuernau G, de Waha S, Meyer-Saraei R, Nordbeck P, Geisler T, Landmesser U, Skurk C et al (2017) PCI strategies in patients with acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock. N Engl J Med 377:2419–2432CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mehta RH, Lopes RD, Ballotta A, Frigiola A, Sketch MH Jr, Bossone E, Bates ER (2010) Percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass surgery for cardiogenic shock and multivessel coronary artery disease? Am Heart J 159(1):141–147CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    White HD, Assmann SF, Sanborn TA, Jacobs AK, Webb JG, Sleeper LA, Wong C-K, Stewart JT, Aylward PEG, Wong S-C et al (2005) Comparison of percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting after acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock: results from the should we emergently revascularize occluded coronaries for cardiogenic shock (SHOCK) trial. Circulation 112(13):1992–2001CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Thiele H, Zeymer U, Neumann F-J, Ferenc M, Olbrich H-G, Hausleiter J, Richardt G, Hennersdorf M, Empen K, Fuernau G et al (2012) Intraaortic balloon support for myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock. N Engl J Med 367(14):1287–1296CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pancholy SB et al (2015) Impact of access site choice on outcomes of patients with cardiogenic shock undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am Heart J 170(2):353–361CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Parodi G, Xanthopoulou I, Bellandi B, Valenti R, Gkizas V, Migliorini A, Karanikas S, Abbate R, Antoniucci D, Alexopoulos D (1030) Ticagrelor crushed tablets administration in STEMI patients: the Mashed Or Just Integral Tablets of ticagrelOr (MOJITO) study. Eur Heart J 2014(Abstract Supplement):35Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Crenshaw BS, Granger CB, Birnbaum Y, Pieper KS, Morris DC, Kleiman NS, Vahanian A, Califf RM, Topol EJ (2000) Risk factors, angiographic patterns, and outcomes in patients with ventricular septal defect complicating acute myocardial infarction. GUSTO-I (Global Utilization of Streptokinase and TPA for Occluded Coronary Arteries) Trial Investigators. Circulation 101(1):27–32CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lee WY, Cardon L, Slodki SJ (1962) Perforation of infarcted interventricular septum. Report of a case with prolonged survival and review of the literature. Arch Intern Med 109:731–735CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Menon V, Webb JG, Hillis LD, Sleeper LA, Abboud R, Dzavik V, Slater JN, Forman R, Monrad ES, Talley JD et al (2000) Outcome and profile of ventricular septal rupture with cardiogenic shock after myocardial infarction: a report from the SHOCK Trial Registry. SHould we emergently revascularize Occluded Coronaries in cardiogenic shocK? J Am Coll Cardiol 36(3 Suppl A):1110–1116CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Windecker S, Kolh P, Alfonso F, Collet JP, Cremer J, Falk V, Filippatos G, Hamm C, Head SJ, Juni P et al (2014) 2014 ESC/EACTS guidelines on myocardial revascularization: the Task Force on myocardial revascularization of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS). Eur Heart J 35(37):2541–2619CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Schlotter F, de Waha S, Eitel I, Desch S, Fuernau G, Thiele H (2016) Interventional post myocardial infarction ventricular septal defect closure: systematic review of current evidence. EuroIntervention 12:94–102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Thompson CR, Buller CE, Sleeper LA, Antonelli TA, Webb JG, Jaber WA, Abel JG, Hochman JS (2000) Cardiogenic shock due to acute severe mitral regurgitation complicating acute myocardial infarction: a report from the SHOCK trial registry. J Am Coll Cardiol 36(3, Supplement 1):1104–1109CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cecconi M, De Backer D, Antonelli M, Beale R, Bakker J, Hofer C, Jaeschke R, Mebazaa A, Pinsky MR, Teboul JL et al (2014) Consensus on circulatory shock and hemodynamic monitoring. Task force of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Intensive Care Med 40(12):1795–1815CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Thiele RH, Bartels K, Gan TJ (2015) Cardiac output monitoring: a contemporary assessment and review. Crit Care Med 43(1):177–185CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ricard JD, Salomon L, Boyer A, Thiery G, Meybeck A, Roy C, Pasquet B, Le Miere E, Dreyfuss D (2013) Central or peripheral catheters for initial venous access of ICU patients: a randomized controlled trial. Crit Care Med 41(9):2108–2115CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    De Backer D (2014) Ultrasonic evaluation of the heart. Curr Opin Crit Care 20(3):309–314CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Price S, Platz E, Cullen L, Tavazzi G, Christ M, Cowie MR, Maisel AS, Masip J, Miro O, McMurray JJ et al (2017) Expert consensus document: echocardiography and lung ultrasonography for the assessment and management of acute heart failure. Nat Rev Cardiol 14(7):427–440CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Shah MR, Hasselblad V, Stevenson LW, Binanay C, O’Connor CM, Sopko G, Califf RM (2005) Impact of the pulmonary artery catheter in critically ill patients: meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. JAMA 294(13):1664–1670CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Harvey S, Harrison DA, Singer M, Ashcroft J, Jones CM, Elbourne D, Brampton W, Williams D, Young D, Rowan K (2005) Assessment of the clinical effectiveness of pulmonary artery catheters in management of patients in intensive care (PAC-Man): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 366(9484):472–477CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Binanay C, Califf RM, Hasselblad V, O’Connor CM, Shah MR, Sopko G, Stevenson LW, Francis GS, Leier CV, Miller LW (2005) Evaluation study of congestive heart failure and pulmonary artery catheterization effectiveness: the ESCAPE trial. JAMA 294(13):1625–1633CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tarvasmaki T, Lassus J, Varpula M, Sionis A, Sund R, Kober L, Spinar J, Parissis J, Banaszewski M, Silva Cardoso J et al (2016) Current real-life use of vasopressors and inotropes in cardiogenic shock—adrenaline use is associated with excess organ injury and mortality. Crit Care 20(1):208CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    De Backer D, Biston P, Devriendt J, Madl C, Chochrad D, Aldecoa C, Brasseur A, Defrance P, Gottignies P, Vincent JL et al (2010) Comparison of dopamine and norepinephrine in the treatment of shock. N Engl J Med 362(9):779–789CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hochman JS (2003) Cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction: expanding the paradigm. Circulation 107(24):2998–3002CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Jolly S, Newton G, Horlick E, Seidelin PH, Ross HJ, Husain M, Dzavik V (2005) Effect of vasopressin on hemodynamics in patients with refractory cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 96(12):1617–1620CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Levy B, Perez P, Perny J, Thivilier C, Gerard A (2011) Comparison of norepinephrine-dobutamine to epinephrine for hemodynamics, lactate metabolism, and organ function variables in cardiogenic shock. A prospective, randomized pilot study. Crit Care Med 39:450–455CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Levy BC-JR, Legras A, Morichau- Beauchant T, Leone M, Ganster F, Jean-Pierre Quenot JP, Kimmoun A, Cariou A, Lassus J, Harjola VP, Meziani F, Louis G, Rossignol P, Duarte K, Girerd N, Mebazaa A, Vignon Ph (2018) Epinephrine versus norepinephrine in cardiogenic shock after acute myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol (in press)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Levy B, Meziani F, Leone M, Guiot P, Quenot JP, Louis G, Legras A, Duarte K, Vignon P (2018) Comparison of epinephrine and norepinephrine for the treatment of cardiogenic shock following acute myocardial infarction. OPTIMA CC study. Ann Intensive Care 8(Suppl 1):CO-65Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Conrad SA, Broman LM, Taccone FS, Lorusso R, Malfertheiner MV, Pappalardo F, Di Nardo M, Belliato M, Grazioli L, Barbaro RP et al (2018) The Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Maastricht Treaty for nomenclature in extracorporeal life support. A position paper of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.  https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201710-2130CP
  51. 51.
    Thiele H, Zeymer U, Neumann F-J, Ferenc M, Olbrich H-G, Hausleiter J, de Waha A, Richardt G, Hennersdorf M, Empen K et al (2013) Intraaortic balloon counterpulsation in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock. Final 12-month results of the randomised IntraAortic Balloon Pump in cardiogenic shock II (IABP-SHOCK II) trial. Lancet 382:1638–1645CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sandhu A, McCoy LA, Negi SI, Hameed I, Atri P, Al’Aref SJ, Curtis J, McNulty E, Anderson HV, Shroff A et al (2015) Utilization of mechanical circulatory support in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: insights from the NCDR. Circulation 132:1243–1251CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Shah M, Patnaik S, Patel B, Ram P, Garg L, Agarwal M, Agrawal S, Arora S, Patel N, Wald J et al (2018) Trends in mechanical circulatory support use and hospital mortality among patients with acute myocardial infarction and non-infarction related cardiogenic shock in the United States. Clin Res Cardiol 107(4):287–303CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Thiele H, Jobs A, Ouweneel DM, Henriques JPS, Seyfarth M, Desch S, Eitel I, Pöss J, Fuernau G, de Waha S (2017) Percutaneous short-term active mechanical support devices in cardiogenic shock: a systematic review and collaborative meta-analysis of randomized trials. Eur Heart J 38:3523–3531CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ouweneel DM, Eriksen E, Sjauw KD, van Dongen IM, Hirsch A, Packer EJ, Vis M, Wykrzykowska JJ, Koch KT, Baan J et al (2017) Impella CP versus intra-aortic balloon pump support in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock. The IMPRESS in Severe Shock trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 69:278–287CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Zeymer U, Thiele H (2017) Mechanical support for cardiogenic shock—lost in translation? J Am Coll Cardiol 69:288–290CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Basir MB, Schreiber T, Dixon S, Alaswad K, Patel K, Almany S, Khandelwal A, Hanson I, George A, Ashbrook M et al (2018) Feasibility of early mechanical circulatory support in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock: the Detroit cardiogenic shock initiative. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 91(3):454–461CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Basir MB, Schreiber TL, Grines CL, Dixon SR, Moses JW, Maini BS, Khandelwal AK, Ohman EM, O’Neill WW (2017) Effect of early initiation of mechanical circulatory support on survival in cardiogenic shock. Am J Cardiol 119(6):845–851CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Muller G, Flecher E, Lebreton G, Luyt CE, Trouillet JL, Brechot N, Schmidt M, Mastroianni C, Chastre J, Leprince P et al (2016) The ENCOURAGE mortality risk score and analysis of long-term outcomes after VA-ECMO for acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock. Intensive Care Med 42(3):370–378CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Abrams D, Garan AR, Abdelbary A, Bacchetta M, Bartlett RH, Beck J, Belohlavek J, Chen YS, Fan E, Ferguson ND et al (2018) Position paper for the organization of ECMO programs for cardiac failure in adults. Intensive Care Med (in press)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Aissaoui N, Caudron J, Leprince P, Fagon JY, Lebreton G, Combes A, Diebold B (2017) Right-left ventricular interdependence: a promising predictor of successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) weaning after assistance for refractory cardiogenic shock. Intensive Care Med 43(4):592–594CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Pappalardo F, Schulte C, Pieri M, Schrage B, Contri R, Soeffker G, Greco T, Lembo R, Mullerleile K, Colombo A et al (2017) Concomitant implantation of Impella® on top of veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may improve survival of patients with cardiogenic shock. Eur J Heart Fail 19(3):404–412CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Aso S, Matsui H, Fushimi K, Yasunaga H (2016) The effect of intraaortic balloon pumping under venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation on mortality of cardiogenic patients: an analysis using a nationwide inpatient database. Crit Care Med 44(11):1974–1979CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ouweneel DM, Schotborgh JV, Limpens J, Sjauw KD, Engstrom AE, Lagrand WK, Cherpanath TG, Driessen AH, de Mol BA, Henriques JP (2016) Extracorporeal life support during cardiac arrest and cardiogenic shock: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Intensive Care Med 42(12):1922–1934CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Combes A, Brodie D, Chen YS, Fan E, Henriques JPS, Hodgson C, Lepper PM, Leprince P, Maekawa K, Muller T et al (2017) The ICM research agenda on extracorporeal life support. Intensive Care Med 43(9):1306–1318CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Masip J, Peacock WF, Price S, Cullen L, Martin-Sanchez FJ, Seferovic P, Maisel AS, Miro O, Filippatos G, Vrints C et al (2018) Indications and practical approach to non-invasive ventilation in acute heart failure. Eur Heart J 39(1):17–25CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hongisto M, Lassus J, Tarvasmaki T, Sionis A, Tolppanen H, Lindholm MG, Banaszewski M, Parissis J, Spinar J, Silva-Cardoso J et al (2017) Use of noninvasive and invasive mechanical ventilation in cardiogenic shock: a prospective multicenter study. Int J Cardiol 230:191–197CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Jantti T, Tarvasmaki T, Harjola VP, Parissis J, Pulkki K, Sionis A, Silva-Cardoso J, Kober L, Banaszewski M, Spinar J et al (2017) Frequency and prognostic significance of abnormal liver function tests in patients with cardiogenic shock. Am J Cardiol 120(7):1090–1097CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ostenfeld S, Lindholm MG, Kjaergaard J, Bro-Jeppesen J, Moller JE, Wanscher M, Hassager C (2015) Prognostic implication of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in patients with cardiogenic shock and acute myocardial infarction. Resuscitation 87:57–62CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Urban P, Stauffer JC, Bleed D, Khatchatrian N, Amann W, Bertel O, van den Brand M, Danchin N, Kaufmann U, Meier B et al (1999) A randomized evaluation of early revascularization to treat shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. The (Swiss) Multicenter Trial of Angioplasty for Shock-(S)MASH. Eur Heart J 20(14):1030–1038CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Fordyce CB, Wang TY, Chen AY, Thomas L, Granger CB, Scirica BM, Henry TD, Wong GC, Ramanathan K, Hansen CM et al (2016) Long-term post-discharge risks in older survivors of myocardial infarction with and without out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. J Am Coll Cardiol 67(17):1981–1990CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Nolan JP, Soar J, Cariou A, Cronberg T, Moulaert VR, Deakin CD, Bottiger BW, Friberg H, Sunde K, Sandroni C (2015) European Resuscitation Council and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine guidelines for post-resuscitation care 2015: section 5 of the European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015. Resuscitation 95:202–222CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Bernard SA, Smith K, Finn J, Hein C, Grantham H, Bray JE, Deasy C, Stephenson M, Williams TA, Straney LD et al (2016) Induction of therapeutic hypothermia during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest using a rapid infusion of cold saline: the RINSE trial (rapid infusion of cold normal saline). Circulation 134(11):797–805CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Testori C, Sterz F, Holzer M, Losert H, Arrich J, Herkner H, Krizanac D, Wallmuller C, Stratil P, Schober A et al (2012) The beneficial effect of mild therapeutic hypothermia depends on the time of complete circulatory standstill in patients with cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 83(5):596–601CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Harjola VP, Mebazaa A, Celutkiene J, Bettex D, Bueno H, Chioncel O, Crespo-Leiro MG, Falk V, Filippatos G, Gibbs S et al (2016) Contemporary management of acute right ventricular failure: a statement from the Heart Failure Association and the Working Group on Pulmonary Circulation and Right Ventricular Function of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur J Heart Fail 18(3):226–241CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Jacobs AK, Leopold JA, Bates E, Mendes LA, Sleeper LA, White H, Davidoff R, Boland J, Modur S, Forman R et al (2003) Cardiogenic shock caused by right ventricular infarction: a report from the SHOCK registry. J Am Coll Cardiol 41(8):1273–1279CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature and ESICM 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexandre Mebazaa
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Alain Combes
    • 5
  • Sean van Diepen
    • 6
  • Alexa Hollinger
    • 2
    • 3
    • 7
  • Jaon N. Katz
    • 8
  • Giovanni Landoni
    • 9
    • 10
  • Ludhmila Abrahao Hajjar
    • 11
  • Johan Lassus
    • 12
  • Guillaume Lebreton
    • 13
    • 14
  • Gilles Montalescot
    • 14
    • 15
  • Jin Joo Park
    • 16
  • Susanna Price
    • 17
  • Alessandro Sionis
    • 18
    • 19
  • Demetris Yannopolos
    • 20
  • Veli-Pekka Harjola
    • 21
  • Bruno Levy
    • 22
    • 23
    • 24
  • Holger Thiele
    • 25
  1. 1.University Paris DiderotParisFrance
  2. 2.APHP, Department of Anesthesia, Burn and Critical CareHôpitaux Universitaires Saint Louis LariboisièreParisFrance
  3. 3.U 942 InsermParisFrance
  4. 4.INI-CRCTParisFrance
  5. 5.Sorbonne Université, INSERM, Institute of Cardiometabolism and Nutrition UMRS_1166-ICAN, Service de Médecine Intensive-Réanimation, Institut de Cardiologie, APHP Hôpital Pitié–SalpêtrièreParisFrance
  6. 6.Department of Critical Care and Division of CardiologyUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  7. 7.Department for Anesthesia, Surgical Intensive Care, Prehospital Emergency Medicine and Pain TherapyUniversity Hospital BaselBaselSwitzerland
  8. 8.Department of CardiologyUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  9. 9.Vita-Salute San Raffaele UniversityMilanItaly
  10. 10.Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive CareSan Raffaele Scientific InstituteMilanItaly
  11. 11.Department of Cardiopneumology, Instituto do CoracaoUniversidade de São Paulo – Hospital SirioLibanesSão PauloBrazil
  12. 12.Cardiology, Heart and Lung CenterHelsinki University and Helsinki University HospitalHelsinkiFinland
  13. 13.Department of Cardiac SurgeryAPHP, Hôpital La Pitié SalpétrièreParisFrance
  14. 14.Université Pierre et Marie CurieParisFrance
  15. 15.Department of CardiologyAPHP, Hôpital La Pitié SalpétrièreParisFrance
  16. 16.Cardiovascular Center, Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal MedicineSeoul National University Bundang HospitalSeongnamRepublic of Korea
  17. 17.Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, Royal Brompton HospitalLondonUK
  18. 18.Acute and Intensive Cardiac Care Unit, Cardiology Department, Hospital Santa Creu i Sant PauBiomedical Research Institute Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau)BarcelonaSpain
  19. 19.CiberCV, Institute of Health Carlos III, Hospital Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau)BarcelonaSpain
  20. 20.Interventional CardiologyMinneapolisUSA
  21. 21.Department of Emergency Medicine and Services, Helsinki University HospitalUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  22. 22.Medical ICU, Institut du Coeur et des Vaisseaux, CHU Nancy-BraboisNancyFrance
  23. 23.Groupe Choc, équipe 2, Inserm U1116NancyFrance
  24. 24.University of LorraineNancyFrance
  25. 25.Department of Internal Medicine/CardiologyHeart Center Leipzig – University HospitalLeipzigGermany

Personalised recommendations