Intensive Care Medicine

, Volume 43, Issue 9, pp 1187–1197 | Cite as

The intensive care medicine research agenda on multidrug-resistant bacteria, antibiotics, and stewardship

  • Marin H. Kollef
  • Matteo Bassetti
  • Bruno Francois
  • Jason Burnham
  • George Dimopoulos
  • Jose Garnacho-Montero
  • Jeffrey Lipman
  • Charles-Edouard Luyt
  • David P. Nicolau
  • Maarten J. Postma
  • Antonio Torres
  • Tobias Welte
  • Richard G. Wunderink
Research Agenda



To concisely describe the current standards of care, major recent advances, common beliefs that have been contradicted by recent trials, areas of uncertainty, and clinical studies that need to be performed over the next decade and their expected outcomes with regard to the management of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, antibiotic use, and antimicrobial stewardship in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting.


Narrative review based on a systematic analysis of the medical literature, national and international guidelines, and expert opinion.


The prevalence of infection of critically ill patients by MDR bacteria is rapidly evolving. Clinical studies aimed at improving understanding of the changing patterns of these infections in ICUs are urgently needed. Ideal antibiotic utilization is another area of uncertainty requiring additional investigations aimed at better understanding of dose optimization, duration of therapy, use of combination treatment, aerosolized antibiotics, and the integration of rapid diagnostics as a guide for treatment. Moreover, there is an imperative need to develop non-antibiotic approaches for the prevention and treatment of MDR infections in the ICU. Finally, clinical research aimed at demonstrating the beneficial impact of antimicrobial stewardship in the ICU setting is essential.


These and other fundamental questions need to be addressed over the next decade in order to better understand how to prevent, diagnose, and treat MDR bacterial infections. Clinical studies described in this research agenda provide a template and set priorities for investigations that should be performed in this field.


Antibiotics Bacteria Stewardship Multidrug resistance 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

Dr. Kollef is an investigator for the Arsanis and Aridis monoclonal antibody studies. Dr. Francois is an investigator for the Aridis monoclonal antibody study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and ESICM 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marin H. Kollef
    • 1
  • Matteo Bassetti
    • 2
  • Bruno Francois
    • 3
  • Jason Burnham
    • 4
  • George Dimopoulos
    • 5
  • Jose Garnacho-Montero
    • 6
    • 7
  • Jeffrey Lipman
    • 8
    • 9
  • Charles-Edouard Luyt
    • 10
    • 11
  • David P. Nicolau
    • 12
  • Maarten J. Postma
    • 13
  • Antonio Torres
    • 14
  • Tobias Welte
    • 15
  • Richard G. Wunderink
    • 16
  1. 1.Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care MedicineWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.Infectious Diseases DivisionSanta Maria Misericordia University HospitalUdineItaly
  3. 3.Service de Réanimation Polyvalente, Inserm CIC-1435CHU DupuytrenLimogesFrance
  4. 4.Division of Infectious DiseasesWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA
  5. 5.Department of Critical Care, Attikon University Hospital, Medical SchoolNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece
  6. 6.Unidad Clínica de Cuidados IntensivosHospital Universitario Virgen MacarenaSevilleSpain
  7. 7.Institute of Biomedicine of SevilleIBiS/CSIC/University of SevilleSevilleSpain
  8. 8.Department of Intensive Care MedicineRoyal Brisbane and Women’s HospitalBrisbaneAustralia
  9. 9.Burns, Trauma, and Critical Care Research CentreThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  10. 10.Service de RéanimationGroupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de ParisParisFrance
  11. 11.Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, INSERMUMRS 1166-ICAN Institute of Cardiometabolism and NutritionParisFrance
  12. 12.Center for Anti-infective Research and Development and Division of Infectious DiseasesHartford HospitalHartfordUSA
  13. 13.Unit of PharmacoTherapy, Epidemiology & Economics, Department of Pharmacy and Department of EpidemiologyUniversity Medical Center Groningen, University of GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands
  14. 14.Department of Pulmonology, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, CIBERES, IDIBAPSUniversity of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  15. 15.Department of PulmonologyHannover Medical SchoolHannoverGermany
  16. 16.Pulmonary and Critical CareNorthwestern University Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA

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