Intensive Care Medicine

, Volume 42, Issue 5, pp 889–896 | Cite as

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: evolving epidemiology and mortality

  • Christian Karagiannidis
  • Daniel Brodie
  • Stephan Strassmann
  • Erich Stoelben
  • Alois Philipp
  • Thomas Bein
  • Thomas Müller
  • Wolfram Windisch
Original

Abstract

Purpose

The evolution of the epidemiology and mortality of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) remains unclear. The present study investigates the evolving epidemiology and mortality of various ECMO techniques in Germany over time, used for both severe respiratory and cardiac failure.

Methods

Data on all patients receiving venovenous (vv-ECMO) and venoarterial (va-ECMO) ECMO as well as pumpless extracorporeal lung assist/interventional lung assist (PECLA/ILA) outside the operating room in Germany from 1 January 2007 through 31 December 2014 were obtained from the Federal Statistical Office of Germany and analyzed.

Results

The incidence of vv-ECMO and va-ECMO in the population increased threefold from 1.0:100,000 inhabitants/year in 2007 to a maximum of 3.0:100,000 in 2012, and from 0.1:100,000 in 2007 to 0.7:100,000 in 2012 and to a maximum of 3.5:100,000 in 2014, respectively. The incidence of arteriovenous PECLA/ILA also increased from 0.4:100,000 to a maximum of 0.6:100,000 in 2011, but decreased thereafter to 0.3:100,000 in 2014. The relative proportion of older patients receiving ECMO is steadily increasing. In-hospital mortality decreased over time and reached 58 and 66 % for vv-ECMO and va-ECMO in 2014, respectively. In addition, mortality steadily increased with age and was especially high in the first 48 h of ECMO use.

Conclusions

In a high-income country like Germany, the use of ECMO has been rapidly increasing since 2007 for both respiratory and cardiac support, with a recent plateau in vv-ECMO use. In-hospital mortality decreased with increasing ECMO utilization, but remains high, especially in older patients and in the first 48 h of use.

Keywords

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal Epidemiology Indication Technical development 

Abbreviations

ECCO2R

Extracorporeal CO2 removal

ECMO

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

vv-ECMO

Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

va-ECMO

Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

IABP

Intra-aortic balloon pumping

PECLA/ILA

Pumpless extracorporeal lung assist/interventional lung assist

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the Federal Statistical Office of Germany (Statistisches Bundesamt, Wiesbaden, Germany) for their excellent support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

C.K. received travel grants, lecture fees and performs consultant services for Maquet, Rastatt, Germany; D.B. is on the Medical Advisory Boards for ALung Technologies and Kadence. All compensation for these activities goes to Columbia University. S.S. received travel grants and lecture fees from Maquet Cardiopulmonary, Rastatt, Germany, E.S. has no conflicts of interest, A.P. received travel grants from Maquet Cardiopulmonary, Rastatt, Germany, T.B. received honoraria for lectures and activities as member of the advisory board of Novalung, Heilbronn, Germany, T.M. received travel support for invited lectures from Maquet Cardiopulmonary, Rastatt, Germany; W.W. received fees for advisory board meetings and lectures from Maquet Cardiopulmonary, Rastatt, Germany. C.K. and W.W. received an open research grant for the hospital from Maquet Cardiopulmonary, Rastatt, Germany.

Supplementary material

134_2016_4273_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (3.6 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 3676 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and ESICM 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine, Cologne-Merheim Hospital, ARDS and ECMO Centre, Kliniken der Stadt Köln gGmbHWitten/Herdecke University HospitalCologneGermany
  2. 2.Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical CareColumbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons/New York-Presbyterian HospitalNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of Thoracic Surgery, Cologne-Merheim Hospital, Kliniken der Stadt Köln gGmbHWitten/Herdecke University HospitalCologneGermany
  4. 4.Department of Cardiothoracic SurgeryUniversity Hospital of RegensburgRegensburgGermany
  5. 5.Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care MedicineUniversity Hospital of RegensburgRegensburgGermany
  6. 6.Department of Internal Medicine IIUniversity Hospital of RegensburgRegensburgGermany

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