Advertisement

Intensive Care Medicine

, Volume 42, Issue 3, pp 415–417 | Cite as

What’s new in bacterial meningitis

  • Matthijs C. Brouwer
  • Eelco F. M. Wijdicks
  • Diederik van de BeekEmail author
What's New in Intensive Care

Primary prevention of bacterial meningitis—predominantly through vaccination programs—is of paramount importance, since mortality and long-term disabling sequelae remain substantial [1]. Routine vaccination also offers herd immunity for the unvaccinated population [2]. The most illustrative example of such a major impact is the introduction of meningococcal conjugate vaccines [3]. Vaccination against serogroup A in Africa and serogroup C in Europe have decreased its incidence by 95 % or more [3]. A novel, four-component, recombinant, meningococcal serogroup B vaccine was shown to be immunogenic and safe in two randomized controlled trials testing infants and children [4]. Implementation of this vaccine may further decrease invasive meningococcal disease, but decreasing rates of penicillin susceptibility and the possible resurgence of the disease remain a public health threat [5]. Of concern is a recent international outbreak of MenC:cc11 disease among gay men, and the demonstrated...

Keywords

Status Epilepticus Bacterial Meningitis Conjugate Vaccine Decompressive Craniectomy Moderate Hypothermia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

None.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

All authors declared that they have no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Roed C, Omland LH, Skinhoj P, Rothman KJ, Sorensen HT, Obel N (2013) Educational achievement and economic self-sufficiency in adults after childhood bacterial meningitis. JAMA 309:1714–1721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bijlsma MW, Brouwer MC, Spanjaard L, van de Beek D, van der Ende A (2014) A decade of herd protection after introduction of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccination. Clin Infect Dis 59:1216–1222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    McIntyre PB, O’Brien KL, Greenwood B, van de Beek D (2012) Effect of vaccines on bacterial meningitis worldwide. Lancet 380:1703–1711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Read RC, Baxter D, Chadwick DR, Faust SN, Finn A, Gordon SB et al (2014) Effect of a quadrivalent meningococcal ACWY glycoconjugate or a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine on meningococcal carriage: an observer-blind, phase 3 randomised clinical trial. Lancet 384:2123–2131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bijlsma MW, Bekker V, Brouwer MC, Spanjaard L, van de Beek D, van der Ende A (2014) Epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease in the Netherlands, 1960-2012: an analysis of national surveillance data. Lancet Infect Dis 14:805–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lucidarme J, Hill DM, Bratcher HB, Gray SJ, du Plessis M, Tsang RS et al (2015) Genomic resolution of an aggressive, widespread, diverse and expanding meningococcal serogroup B, C and W lineage. J Infect. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2015.07.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brouwer MC, Thwaites GE, Tunkel AR, van de Beek D (2012) Dilemmas in the diagnosis of acute community-acquired bacterial meningitis. Lancet 380:1684–1692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Castelblanco RL, Lee M, Hasbun R (2014) Epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in the USA from 1997 to 2010: a population-based observational study. Lancet Infect Dis 14:813–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Glimåker M, Johansson B, Grindborg Ö, Bottai M, Lindquist L, Sjölin J (2015) Adult bacterial meningitis: earlier treatment and improved outcome following guideline revision promoting prompt lumbar puncture. Clin Infect Dis 60:1162–1169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    van de Beek D, Brouwer MC, Thwaites GE, Tunkel AR (2012) Advances in treatment of bacterial meningitis. Lancet 380:1693–1702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lucas MJ, Brouwer MC, van de Beek D (2013) Delayed cerebral thrombosis in bacterial meningitis: a prospective cohort study. Intensive Care Med 39:866–871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Molyneux EM, Kawaza K, Phiri A, Chimalizeni Y, Mankhambo L, Schwalbe E et al (2014) Glycerol and acetaminophen as adjuvant therapy did not affect the outcome of bacterial meningitis in Malawian children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 33:214–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pelkonen T, Roine I, Cruzeiro ML, Pitkaranta A, Kataja M, Peltola H (2011) Slow initial beta-lactam infusion and oral paracetamol to treat childhood bacterial meningitis: a randomised, controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis 11:613–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mourvillier B, Tubach F, van de Beek D, Garot D, Pichon N, Georges H et al (2013) Induced hypothermia in severe bacterial meningitis: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 310:2174–2183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Peltola H, Roine I, Fernandez J, Zavala I, Ayala SG, Mata AG et al (2007) Adjuvant glycerol and/or dexamethasone to improve the outcomes of childhood bacterial meningitis: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis 45:1277–1286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ajdukiewicz KM, Cartwright KE, Scarborough M, Mwambene JB, Goodson P, Molyneux ME et al (2011) Glycerol adjuvant therapy in adults with bacterial meningitis in a high HIV seroprevalence setting in Malawi: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis 11:293–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Glimåker M, Johansson B, Halldorsdottir H, Wanecek M, Elmi-Terander A, Ghatan PH et al (2014) Neuro-intensive treatment targeting intracranial hypertension improves outcome in severe bacterial meningitis: an intervention-control study. PLoS One 9:e91976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Edberg M, Furebring M, Sjölin J, Enblad P (2011) Neurointensive care of patients with severe community-acquired meningitis. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 55:732–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Muralidharan R, Mateen FJ, Rabinstein AA (2014) Outcome of fulminant bacterial meningitis in adult patients. Eur J Neurol 21:447–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zoons E, Weisfelt M, de Gans J, Spanjaard L, Koelman JH, Reitsma JB, van de Beek D (2008) Seizures in adults with bacterial meningitis. Neurology 70:2109–2115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lucas MJ, Brouwer MC, van der Ende A, van de Beek D (2014) Outcome in patients with bacterial meningitis presenting with a minimal Glasgow Coma Scale score. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 1:e9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Woehrl B, Brouwer MC, Murr C, Heckenberg SG, Baas F, Pfister HW et al (2011) Complement component 5 contributes to poor disease outcome in humans and mice with pneumococcal meningitis. J Clin Invest 121:3943–3953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Liechti FD, Bächtold F, Grandgirard D, Leppert D, Leib SL (2015) The matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor RS-130830 attenuates brain injury in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. J Neuroinflammation 12:43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bretonnière C, Jozwiak M, Girault C, Beuret P, Trouillet JL, Anguel N et al (2015) Rifampin use in acute community-acquired meningitis in intensive care units: the French retrospective cohort ACAM-ICU study. Crit Care 19:303CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2015

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthijs C. Brouwer
    • 1
  • Eelco F. M. Wijdicks
    • 2
  • Diederik van de Beek
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Center, Center of Infection and Immunity Amsterdam (CINIMA)University of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Division of Critical Care NeurologyMayo ClinicRochesterUSA

Personalised recommendations