Isolation in patients with Ebola virus disease
- 1.1k Downloads
Ebola filoviruses are the causative pathogens of a severe form of viral haemorrhagic fever with high case fatality rates in humans (50–90 %; more than 70 % in the current outbreak), designated Ebola haemorrhagic fever or Ebola virus disease (EVD). Ebola is endemic in regions of Central and Western Africa [1, 2].
Currently, beginning in late 2013, an unprecedented epidemic with several thousand cases and deaths (as per WHO report 05.11.2014: 13,042 documented cases, 4,818 deaths) is unfolding in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, and spreading to other countries in Africa, Europe and the USA where isolated cases have occurred [1, 3, 4, 5, 6].
Ebola transmission occurs exclusively through direct contact with body fluids through mucosal surfaces, skin abrasions, or by parenteral introduction—an aerosolised or droplet transmission has not so far been reported. Health care personal infections have not only happened after needle sticks but also after unsafe personal protection...
KeywordsHaemorrhagic Fever Personal Protection Equipment Health Care Personnel Health Care Staff Haemorrhagic Fever Virus
Conflicts of interest
The authors do not have a conflict of interests.
Supplementary material 2 (M4V 260679 kb). Donning, decontamination and doffing when using positive-pressure-suits
Supplementary material 3 (Mp4 63081 kb). Donning, decontamination and doffing when using positive-pressure-suits. (Low-resolution video)
- 3.Kreuels B, Wichmann D, Emmerich P, Schmidt-Chanasit J, de Heer G, Kluge S, Sow A, Renné T, Günther S, Lohse AW et al (2014) A case of severe ebola virus infection complicated by gram-negative septicemia N Engl J Med (Epub ahead of print)Google Scholar
- 6.Chertow DS, Kleine C, Edwards JK, Scani R, Giuliani R, Sprecher A (2014) Ebola virus disease in West Africa—Clinical manifestations and mangement. N Engl J Med (Epub ahead of print)Google Scholar
- 8.Council Directive 89/391/EEC (1989) (fulltext including later amendments). http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:01989L0391-20081211 Accessed on 11 Nov 2014
- 9.Council Directive 89/656/EEC (1989) (fulltext including later amendments). http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX:01989L0656-20070627 Accessed 11 Nov 2014
- 10.Directive 2000/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 September. Official Journal of the European Union. OJ L 262, 17.10.2000, pp 21–45. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX:32000L0054 Accessed 11 Nov 2014
- 11.Guidance on personal protective equipment to be used by healthcare workers during management of patients with ebola virus disease in the US Hospitals, including procedures for putting on (donning) and removing (doffing). www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/hcp/precedures-for-ppe.html Accessed on 16 Nov 2014
- 12.ECDC. November 2014. A technical document. Critical aspects of the safe use of personal protective equipment. http://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications/Publications/safe-use-of-ppe.pdf
- 13.Frontières MS (2008) Filovirus haemorrhagic fever guideline. Médecins Sans Frontières, Barcelona, pp 33–35Google Scholar