Intensive Care Medicine

, Volume 40, Issue 9, pp 1256–1266 | Cite as

Impact of fluid balance on outcome of adult patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

  • Matthieu SchmidtEmail author
  • Michael Bailey
  • Joshua Kelly
  • Carol Hodgson
  • D. James Cooper
  • Carlos Scheinkestel
  • Vincent Pellegrino
  • Rinaldo Bellomo
  • David Pilcher



To assess the relationship between early daily fluid balance (FB) and 90-day outcome in adult patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).


Retrospective observational study.


Tertiary referral centre for ECMO.


115 patients treated with ECMO for refractory heart failure and 57 patients treated with ECMO for refractory respiratory failure.


We analysed the association between early daily FB versus hospital and 90-day mortality using multivariable logistic regression model, Cox proportional-hazards model and propensity score.


We obtained detailed demographic, clinical, and biochemical data, daily FB, and continuous renal replacement days. Fifty-seven per cent of patients had acute kidney injury (AKI) at ECMO initiation, and 60 % (n = 103) of patients received continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) during ECMO course, beginning at a median of 1 (0–3.5) days after ECMO initiation. Overall 90-day mortality was 24 %. Survivors exhibited lower daily FB from day 3 to day 5. After adjustments, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III, CRRT during the first 3 days, major bleeding event at day 1 and positive FB on day 3 were independent predictors of 90-day mortality. Positive FB at ECMO day 3 remained an independent predictor of hospital and 90-day mortality, regardless of the statistical model used or the inclusion of a propensity score to have positive FB.


Positive FB at ECMO day 3 is an independent predictor of 90-day mortality. Further interventional studies aimed at testing the value of strategy of tight control of FB during the early ECMO period are now warranted.


Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation Fluid overload Outcome Adult 



M.S. was supported by the French Intensive Care Society (SRLF), the Fonds de Dotation Recherche en Santé Respiratoire 2012, the Collège des Enseignants de Réanimation Médicale and the Fonds d’Étude et de Recherche du Corps Médical des Hôpitaux de Paris.

Conflicts of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

134_2014_3360_MOESM1_ESM.docx (790 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 789 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and ESICM 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthieu Schmidt
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Michael Bailey
    • 1
    • 3
  • Joshua Kelly
    • 1
  • Carol Hodgson
    • 1
    • 3
  • D. James Cooper
    • 1
    • 3
  • Carlos Scheinkestel
    • 3
  • Vincent Pellegrino
    • 1
    • 3
  • Rinaldo Bellomo
    • 1
  • David Pilcher
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Research Centre, School of Public Health and Preventive MedicineMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Medical–Surgical Intensive Care Unit, iCAN, Institute of Cardiometabolism and Nutrition, Hôpital de la Pitié–SalpêtrièreAssistance Publique–Hôpitaux de ParisParisFrance
  3. 3.Intensive Care DepartmentAlfred HospitalMelbourneAustralia

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