Intensive Care Medicine

, Volume 40, Issue 7, pp 981–987 | Cite as

Offering the opportunity for family to be present during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: 1-year assessment

  • Patricia Jabre
  • Karim Tazarourte
  • Elie Azoulay
  • Stephen W. Borron
  • Vanessa Belpomme
  • Line Jacob
  • Lionel Bertrand
  • Frederic Lapostolle
  • Xavier Combes
  • Michel Galinski
  • Virginie Pinaud
  • Carla Destefano
  • Domitille Normand
  • Alexandra Beltramini
  • Nathalie Assez
  • Benoit Vivien
  • Eric Vicaut
  • Frederic Adnet
Original

Abstract

Purpose

To evaluate the psychological consequences among family members given the option to be present during the CPR of a relative, compared with those not routinely offered the option.

Methods

Prospective, cluster-randomized, controlled trial involving 15 prehospital emergency medical services units in France, comparing systematic offer for a relative to witness CPR with the traditional practice among 570 family members. Main outcome measure was 1-year assessment included proportion suffering post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression symptoms, and/or complicated grief.

Results

Among the 570 family members [intention to treat (ITT) population], 408 (72 %) were evaluated at 1 year. In the ITT population (N = 570), family members had PTSD-related symptoms significantly more frequently in the control group than in the intervention group [adjusted odds ratio, 1.8; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.1–3.0; P = 0.02] as did family members to whom physicians did not propose witnessing CPR [adjusted odds ratio, 1.7; 95 % CI 1.1–2.6; P = 0.02]. In the observed cases population (N = 408), the proportion of family members experiencing a major depressive episode was significantly higher in the control group (31 vs. 23 %; P = 0.02) and among family members to whom physicians did not propose the opportunity to witness CPR (31 vs. 24 %; P = 0.03). The presence of complicated grief was significantly greater in the control group (36 vs. 21 %; P = 0.005) and among family members to whom physicians did not propose the opportunity to witness resuscitation (37 vs. 23 %; P = 0.003).

Conclusions

At 1 year after the event, psychological benefits persist for those family members offered the possibility to witness the CPR of a relative in cardiac arrest.

Keywords

Cardiac arrest Family presence Post-traumatic stress disorder Complicated grief 

Supplementary material

134_2014_3337_MOESM1_ESM.doc (30 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 30 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and ESICM 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patricia Jabre
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Karim Tazarourte
    • 4
  • Elie Azoulay
    • 5
  • Stephen W. Borron
    • 6
  • Vanessa Belpomme
    • 7
  • Line Jacob
    • 8
  • Lionel Bertrand
    • 9
  • Frederic Lapostolle
    • 1
  • Xavier Combes
    • 10
  • Michel Galinski
    • 1
  • Virginie Pinaud
    • 11
  • Carla Destefano
    • 1
  • Domitille Normand
    • 1
  • Alexandra Beltramini
    • 12
  • Nathalie Assez
    • 13
  • Benoit Vivien
    • 3
  • Eric Vicaut
    • 14
  • Frederic Adnet
    • 1
  1. 1.AP-HP, Urgences-Samu 93, Hôpital AvicenneUniversité Paris 13BobignyFrance
  2. 2.Inserm U970, Centre de Recherche Cardiovasculaire de ParisUniversité Paris DescartesParisFrance
  3. 3.AP-HP, Samu de Paris, Hôpital Necker-Enfants MaladesParisFrance
  4. 4.Samu 77, CH MelunMelunFrance
  5. 5.AP-HP, Réanimation médicale, Hôpital Saint-LouisParisFrance
  6. 6.Department of Emergency MedicineTexas Tech University HSCEl PasoUSA
  7. 7.AP-HP, Smur Beaujon, Hôpital BeaujonClichyFrance
  8. 8.AP-HP, Samu 94, Hôpital Henri MondorCréteilFrance
  9. 9.Samu 82, Hôpital de MontaubanMontaubanFrance
  10. 10.Samu de La Réunion, CHU de Saint-DenisLa RéunionFrance
  11. 11.Samu 44, CHU de NantesNantes CedexFrance
  12. 12.Samu 28, Hôpital de DreuxDreuxFrance
  13. 13.Samu 59, CHRU de LilleLilleFrance
  14. 14.AP-HP, Unité de Recherche Clinique, Hôpital Fernand WidalParisFrance

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