Vitamin D status in critically ill children
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Hypovitaminosis D is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, muscle weakness, impaired metabolism, immune dysfunction, and compromised lung function. Hypovitaminosis D is common in critically ill adults and has been associated with adverse outcomes. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and its significance in critically ill children are unclear.
We performed a prospective study to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in 316 critically ill children, and examined its association with physiological and biochemical variables, length of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay, and hospital mortality.
The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D3 <50 nmol/L] was 34.5 %. Hypovitaminosis D was more common in postoperative cardiac patients than in general medical ICU patients (40.5 versus 22.6 %, p = 0.002), and the cardiac patients had a higher inotrope score [2.5 (1.9–3.3) versus 1.4 (1.1–1.9), p = 0.006]. Additionally, ionized calcium within the first 24 h was lower in patients with 25(OH)D3 <50 nmol/L [1.07 (0.99–1.14) mmol/L] compared with patients with normal vitamin D3 [1.17 (1.14–1.19) mmol/L, p = 0.02]. Hypovitaminosis D was not associated with longer PICU stay or increased hospital mortality.
Hypovitaminosis D is common in critically ill children, and is associated with higher inotropes in the postoperative cardiac population, but not with PICU length of stay or hospital survival.