Patterns of post-traumatic stress symptoms in families after paediatric intensive care
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To establish longitudinal rates of post-traumatic stress in a cohort of child–parent pairs; to determine associations with poorer outcome.
This was a prospective longitudinal cohort study set in a 21-bed unit. In total 66 consecutive admissions aged 7–17 years were screened with one parent at 3 and 12 months post-discharge. Measures used were the Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-8) and the SPAN (short form of Davidson Trauma Scale).
In total 29 (44 %) child–parent pairs contained at least one member who scored above cut-off 12 months after discharge, with scores increasing over time for 18 parents and 26 children. At 3 months, 28 (42 %) parents and 20 (32 %) children scored above cut-off; at 12 months the rates were 18 (27 %) parents and 17 (26 %) children. Parents scoring above cut-off at 12 months were more likely to have had a child admitted non-electively (100 % vs. 77 %, p = 0.028); had higher 3-month anxiety scores (11.5 vs. 4.5, p = 0.001) and their children had higher post-traumatic stress scores at 3 months (14 vs. 8, p = 0.017). Children who scored above cut-off at 12 months had higher 3-month post-traumatic stress scores (18 vs. 7, p = 0.001) and higher Paediatric Index of Mortality (PIM) scores on admission (10 vs. 4, p = 0.037).
The findings that (a) nearly half of families were still experiencing significant symptoms of post-traumatic stress 12 months after discharge; (b) their distress was predicted more by subjective than by objective factors and (c) many experienced delayed reactions, indicate the need for longer-term monitoring and more support for families in this situation
KeywordsPost-traumatic stress Paediatric intensive care Longitudinal Outcomes Parents
We thank Sally Hall for her help in drafting the manuscript. This study was supported by a Leading Practice Through Research Award granted to the first author by The Health Foundation, UK.
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