Intensive Care Medicine

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 99–104 | Cite as

Impact of an embedded simulation team training programme in a paediatric intensive care unit: a prospective, single-centre, longitudinal study

  • Martin StockerEmail author
  • Meredith Allen
  • Natasha Pool
  • Kumi De Costa
  • Julie Combes
  • Neil West
  • Margarita Burmester
Pediatric Original



To evaluate the impact of an embedded simulation-based team training programme on perceived performance and to compare the effect over different phases of the programme.


This was a prospective, single-centre, longitudinal study over the first 2 years of the programme. A total of 219 multidisciplinary health-care professionals participated in simulation sessions, followed by anonymous evaluation questionnaires. The programme was divided into three different phases: introductory (first 6 months), intermediate (second 6 months) and established phase (second year).


A total of 88.7% of participants evaluated the impact on overall practice as effective, 56.5% reported a highly effective impact. A total of 90.9% (391/430) of questions on non-technical skills (communication and teamwork) showed an effective impact, 55.6% a highly effective impact, whereas only 70.2% (262/373) of questions on technical skills showed an effective impact. There was a significant (p < 0.001) increased score for effective impact in all categories between the introductory and intermediate phase, which was maintained throughout the established phase. Overall, 72.7% of the participants felt more confident to attend a future critical event, 32.5% were highly confident. In the longitudinal analysis there was a stepwise significant (p < 0.05) increase of confidence of participants. In a subgroup analysis (n = 143) there was a significant (p < 0.001) higher confidence in participants who had attended at least 3 sessions (90.7 vs. 61%).


There is a 6- to 12-month learning curve in the implementation of an embedded multidisciplinary team training programme. Repeated exposure to simulation is most beneficial to crisis resource management training and single, isolated exposure may not be sufficient.


Simulation Team training Crisis resource management Non-technical skills Technical skills Confidence 


Conflict of interest

All authors have completed the conflict of interest disclosure statement and declare that none of them have support from a company for the submitted work; none of the authors have relationships with companies that might have an interest in the submitted work; their spouses, partners, or children have no financial relationships that may be relevant to the submitted work; and none of the authors have non-financial interests that may be relevant to the submitted work.


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Copyright information

© Copyright jointly held by Springer and ESICM 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Stocker
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Meredith Allen
    • 1
  • Natasha Pool
    • 1
  • Kumi De Costa
    • 1
  • Julie Combes
    • 1
  • Neil West
    • 1
  • Margarita Burmester
    • 1
  1. 1.Paediatric Cardiorespiratory Intensive Care UnitRoyal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation TrustLondonUK
  2. 2.SpR Paediatric Intensive CarePICU Royal Brompton HospitalLondonUK

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