Pulmonary-derived phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma (PI3Kγ) contributes to ventilator-induced lung injury and edema
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Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) occurs in part by increased vascular permeability and impaired alveolar fluid clearance. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma (PI3Kγ) is activated by mechanical stress, induces nitric oxide (NO) production, and participates in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) hydrolysis, each of which contributes to alveolar edema. We hypothesized that lungs lacking PI3Kγ or treated with PI3Kγ inhibitors would be protected from ventilation-induced alveolar edema and lung injury.
Using an isolated and perfused lung model, wild-type (WT) and PI3Kγ-knockout (KO) mice underwent negative-pressure cycled ventilation at either −25 cmH2O and 0 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (HIGH STRESS) or −10 cmH2O and −3 cmH2O PEEP (LOW STRESS).
Compared with WT, PI3Kγ-knockout mice lungs were partially protected from VILI-induced derangement of respiratory mechanics (lung elastance) and edema formation [bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein concentration, wet/dry ratio, and lung histology]. In PI3Kγ-knockout mice, VILI induced significantly less phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), production of nitrate and nitrotyrosine, as well as hydrolysis of cAMP, compared with wild-type animals. PI3Kγ wild-type lungs treated with AS605240, an inhibitor of PI3Kγ kinase activity, in combination with enoximone, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-3 (PDE3)-induced cAMP hydrolysis, were protected from VILI at levels comparable to knockout lungs.
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma in resident lung cells mediates part of the alveolar edema induced by high-stress ventilation. This injury is mediated via altered Akt, eNOS, NO, and/or cAMP signaling. Anti-PI3Kγ therapy aimed at resident lung cells represents a potential pharmacologic target to mitigate VILI.
KeywordsVentilator-induced lung injury Nitric oxide Permeability Lung edema cAMP ARDS
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