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Intensive Care Medicine

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 612–620 | Cite as

Combination antibiotic therapy with macrolides improves survival in intubated patients with community-acquired pneumonia

  • I. Martin-Loeches
  • T. Lisboa
  • A. Rodriguez
  • C. Putensen
  • D. Annane
  • J. Garnacho-Montero
  • M. I. Restrepo
  • J. Rello
Original

Abstract

Objective

To assess the effect on survival of macrolides or fluoroquinolones in intubated patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with severe community-acquired pneumonia (severe CAP).

Methods

Prospective, observational cohort, multicenter study conducted in 27 ICUs of 9 European countries. Two hundred eighteen consecutive patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for an admission diagnosis of CAP were recruited.

Results

Severe sepsis and septic shock were present in 165 (75.7%) patients. Microbiological documentation was obtained in 102 (46.8%) patients. ICU mortality was 37.6% (n = 82). Non-survivors were older (58.6 ± 16.1 vs. 63.4 ± 16.7 years, P < 0.05) and presented a higher score on the simplified Acute Physiology Score II at admission (45.6 ± 15.4 vs. 50.8 ± 17.5, P < 0.05). Monotherapy was given in 43 (19.7%) and combination therapy in 175 (80.3%) patients. Empirical antibiotic therapy was in accordance with the 2007 Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)/American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines in 100 (45.9%) patients (macrolides in 46 patients and fluoroquinolones in 54). In this cohort, a Cox regression analysis adjusted by severity identified that macrolide use was associated with lower ICU mortality (hazard ratio, HR 0.48, confidence intervals, 95% CI 0.23–0.97, P = 0.04) when compared to the use of fluoroquinolones. When more severe patients presenting severe sepsis and septic shock were analyzed (n = 92), similar results were obtained (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.20–0.95, P = 0.03).

Conclusions

Patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia had a low adherence with the 2007 IDSA/ATS guidelines. Combination therapy with macrolides should be preferred in intubated patients with severe CAP.

Keywords

Severe community-acquired pneumonia Macrolides Critical care Mortality 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The EU-VAP/CAP Study is endorsed by the European Critical Care Research Network (ECCRN). This study has been supported in part by grants from CIBER Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES 37706/06/0036) by Carlos III Health Institute and FISS 04/1500. Dr. Restrepo is supported by a Department of Veteran Affairs Veterans Integrated Service Network 17 new faculty grant and National Health Institute grant KL2 RR025766.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest regarding this manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Copyright jointly hold by Springer and ESICM 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Martin-Loeches
    • 1
    • 2
  • T. Lisboa
    • 2
  • A. Rodriguez
    • 2
  • C. Putensen
    • 3
  • D. Annane
    • 4
  • J. Garnacho-Montero
    • 5
  • M. I. Restrepo
    • 6
  • J. Rello
    • 2
  1. 1.Critical Care DepartmentMater Misericordiae University HospitalDublinIreland
  2. 2.Critical Care Department, Joan XXIII University HospitalUniversity Rovira i Virgili, IISPV, CIBER Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES)TarragonaSpain
  3. 3.Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care MedicineUniversity of BonnBonnGermany
  4. 4.Service de Réanimation, Hôpital Raymond Poincaré (AP-HP)Université de Versailles SQYParisFrance
  5. 5.Critical Care and Emergency DepartmentHospital Universitario Virgen del RocioSevillaSpain
  6. 6.Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, VERDICT, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, Audie L Murphy DivisionUniversity of Texas Health Science Center at San AntonioSan AntonioUSA

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