Sepsis mortality prediction based on predisposition, infection and response
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To empirically test, based on a large multicenter, multinational database, whether a modified PIRO (predisposition, insult, response, and organ dysfunction) concept could be applied to predict mortality in patients with infection and sepsis.
Substudy of a multicenter multinational cohort study (SAPS 3).
A total of 2,628 patients with signs of infection or sepsis who stayed in the ICU for > 48 h. Three boxes of variables were defined, according to the PIRO concept. Box 1 (Predisposition) contained information about the patient's condition before ICU admission. Box 2 (Injury) contained information about the infection at ICU admission. Box 3 (Response) was defined as the response to the infection, expressed as a Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score after 48 h.
Main measurements and results
Most of the infections were community acquired (59.6%); 32.5% were hospital acquired. The median age of the patients was 65 (50–75) years, and 41.1% were female. About 22% (n = 576) of the patients presented with infection only, 36.3% (n = 953) with signs of sepsis, 23.6% (n = 619) with severe sepsis, and 18.3% (n = 480) with septic shock. Hospital mortality was 40.6% overall, greater in those with septic shock (52.5%) than in those with infection (34.7%). Several factors related to predisposition, infection and response were associated with hospital mortality.
The proposed three-level system, by using objectively defined criteria for risk of mortality in sepsis, could be used by physicians to stratify patients at ICU admission or shortly thereafter, contributing to a better selection of management according to the risk of death.
KeywordsIntensive care unit Severity of illness Infection Sepsis PIRO Risk adjustment
Statistical analysis was supported by a grant from the Fund of the Austrian National Bank, Project # 10995 ONB. Our thanks go to the participants from all over the world who dedicated a significant amount of their time and effort to this project, proving that it is still possible to conduct a worldwide academic study. The complete list of participants can be found in Appendix D of the ESM.
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