Intensive Care Medicine

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 292–299 | Cite as

Candidemia and candiduria in critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units in France: incidence, molecular diversity, management and outcome

  • Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux
  • Guillaume Kac
  • Philippe Aegerter
  • Christophe d’Enfert
  • Jean-Yves Fagon
  • CandiRea Study Group



To determine the concomitant incidence, molecular diversity, management and outcome of nosocomial candidemia and candiduria in intensive care unit (ICU) patients in France.


A 1-year prospective observational study in 24 adult ICUs.


Two hundred and sixty-two patients with nosocomial candidemia and/or candiduria.

Measurements and results

Blood and urine samples were collected when signs of sepsis were present. Antifungal susceptibility of Candida strains was determined; in addition, all blood and 72% of urine C. albicans isolates were analyzed by using multi-locus sequence type (MLST). The mean incidences of candidemia and candiduria were 6.7 and 27.4/1000 admissions, respectively. Eight percent of candiduric patients developed candidemia with the same species. The mean interval between ICU admission and candidemia was 19.0 ± 2.9 days, and 17.2 ± 1.1 days for candiduria. C. albicans and C. glabrata were isolated in 54.2% and 17% of blood and 66.5% and 21.6% of urine Candida-positive cultures, respectively. Fluconazole was the most frequently prescribed agent. In all candidemic patients, the prescribed curative antifungal agent was active in vitro against the responsible identified strain. Crude ICU mortality was 61.8% for candidemic and 31.3% for candiduric patients. Seventy-five percent of the patients were infected with a unique C. albicans strain; cross-transmission between seven patients was suggested in one hospital.


Candidemia is late-onset ICU-acquired infection associated with high mortality. No difference in susceptibility and genetic background were found between blood and urine strains of Candida species.


Candidemia Candiduria Nosocomial infections Critically ill patients Molecular typing 

Supplementary material

134_2007_865_MOESM1_ESM.doc (37 kb)
Electronic Supplementary Material (DOC 37K)
134_2007_865_MOESM2_ESM.ppt (78 kb)
Electronic Supplementary Material (PPT 80K)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Guillaume Kac
    • 3
    • 6
  • Philippe Aegerter
    • 3
    • 7
  • Christophe d’Enfert
    • 4
  • Jean-Yves Fagon
    • 3
    • 5
    • 8
  • CandiRea Study Group
  1. 1.Service de Bactériologie, Virologie, Parasitologie et HygièneHôpital Necker-Enfants MaladesParis Cedex 15France
  2. 2.Laboratoire de Parasitologie–Mycologie, Service de MicrobiologieHôpital Necker Enfants MaladesParisFrance
  3. 3.Assistance PubliqueHôpitaux de ParisParisFrance
  4. 4.Unité Biologie et Pathogénicité Fongiques, INRA USC 2019Institut PasteurParisFrance
  5. 5.Faculté de MédecineUniversité René DescartesParisFrance
  6. 6.Unité d’Hygiène HospitalièreHôpital Européen Georges PompidouParisFrance
  7. 7.Informatique MédicaleHôpital Ambroise-ParéBoulogne BillancourtFrance
  8. 8.Service de Réanimation MédicaleHôpital Européen Georges PompidouParisFrance

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