Soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1: a biomarker for bacterial meningitis
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To evaluate whether soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (sTREM-1) in CSF can serve as a biomarker for the presence of bacterial meningitis and outcome in patients with this disease.
Retrospective study of diagnostic accuracy.
Setting and patients
CSF was collected from 92 adults with community-acquired bacterial meningitis who participated in the prospective Dutch Meningitis Cohort Study; 8 patients with viral meningitis and 9 healthy control subjects.
CSF sTREM-1 levels were higher in patients with bacterial meningitis (median 82 pg/ml, range 0–988) than in those with viral meningitis (0 pg/ml, 0–48) and controls (0 pg/ml, 0–36). The diagnostic accuracy of sTREM-1 in discriminating between patients with and without bacterial meningitis, expressed as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, was 0.82. At a cutoff level of 20 pg/ml the sensitivity was 0.73 and specificity 0.77. In patients with bacterial meningitis CSF sTREM-1 levels were associated with mortality (survivors, median 73 pg/ml, range 0–449 pg/ml; nonsurvivors, 151 pg/ml, 0–988).
Measuring sTREM-1 in CSF may be a valuable new additional approach to accurately diagnose bacterial meningitis and identify patients at high risk for adverse outcome. Therefore a prospective study of sTREM-1 as a biomarker in bacterial meningitis is needed.
KeywordsSoluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 Bacterial meningitis Viral meningitis Cerebrospinal fluid Outcome
We are indebted to many physicians in The Netherlands who participated in the Dutch Meningitis Cohort. We thank Frank Baas and Hans L. Zaaijer for their help finding control samples.
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