Intensive Care Medicine

, Volume 32, Issue 11, pp 1747–1755 | Cite as

Increased use of noninvasive ventilation in French intensive care units

  • Alexandre Demoule
  • Emmanuelle Girou
  • Jean-Christophe Richard
  • Solenne Taillé
  • Laurent Brochard



A prospective survey of French intensive care units (ICUs) in 1997 showed moderate and variable use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV). This study examined changes in NIV use in French ICUs after the intervening 5 years.


Patients were enrolled in a prospective survey in 70 French ICUs.


Three-week survey, with prospective inclusion of all patients requiring ventilatory support.

Measurements and results

Overall 1,076 patients received ventilatory support (55% of admissions). First-line NIV was significantly more common than 5 years earlier, overall (23% vs. 16%) and especially in patients not intubated before ICU admission (52% vs. 35%). Reasons for respiratory failure were coma (33%), cardiogenic pulmonary edema (8%), acute-on-chronic respiratory failure (17%), and de novo respiratory failure (41%). Significant increases in NIV use were noted for acute-on-chronic respiratory failure (64% vs. 50%) and de novo respiratory failure (22% vs. 14%). Among patients given NIV, 38% subsequently required endotracheal intubation (not significantly different). Independent risk factors for NIV failure were high SAPS II and de novo respiratory failure, whereas factors associated with success were good NIV tolerance and high body mass index.


NIV use has significantly increased in French ICUs during the past 5 years, and the success rate has remained unchanged. In patients not previously intubated, NIV is the leading first-line ventilation modality. The proportion of patients successfully treated with NIV increased significantly over the 5-year period (13% vs. 9% of all patients receiving ventilatory support).


Acute respiratory failure Cardiogenic pulmonary edema Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Pneumonia Endotracheal intubation 



Physicians and centers participating in the study: Angers, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire: A. Kouatchet MD, A. Mercat MD; Argenteuil, Hôpital Victor Dupouy: G. Bleichner MD, H. Mentec MD; Arles, Centre Hospitalier J Imbert: C. Crombé MD, D. Selzer MD; Aubenas, Centre Hospitalier: P. Fernandez MD; Beaune, Hôpital Philippe le Bon: P. Noël MD; Belfort, Centre Hospitalier de Belfort-Montbéliard: O. Ruyer MD; Bordeaux, Hôpital Pellegrin Tripode: G. Hilbert MD, F. Vargas MD; Boulogne-Billancourt, Hôpital Ambroise-Paré: S. Prin MD, A. Vieillard-Baron MD; Brest, CHU la Cavale Blanche: A. Renault MD, E. l'Her MD; Briis Sous Forges, CMC Bligny: P. Andrivet MD; Calais, Centre Hospitalier de Calais: K. Guego MD, H. Peneau MD; Clamart, Hôpital Antoine Béclère: F. Brivet MD, F. Jacobs MD; Colombes, Hôpital Louis Mourier: D. Dreyfuss MD, J.-D. Ricard MD; Corbeil-Essonnes, Centre Hospitalier Sud Francilien: D. Caen MD, D. Larbi MD; Créteil, Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal: O. Gilhodes MD; Dieppe, Centre Hospitalier de Dieppe: M. Pinsard MD, F. Bougerol MD; Dourdan, Centre Hospitalier Général: J.-P. Colin MD; Draguignan, Centre Hospitalier: P. Brofferio MD; Elbeuf, Centre Hospitalier: M. Canonne MD, O. Delastre MD; Etampes, Centre Hospitalier d'Etampes: S. Percheron MD, S. Siami MD; Fréjus, CHI Fréjus Saint-Raphaël: M. Kaidomar MD, A. Besançon MD; Garches, Hôpital Raymond Poincaré: D. Annane MD, D. Orlikowski MD; Helfaut, Centre Hospitalier de la Région de. Saint-Omer: B. Sergent MD; La Roche sur Yon, CH Départemental: E. Clementi MD, L. Martin Lefèvre MD; Le Kremlin-bicêtre, Hôpital de Bicêtre: V. Zarka MD, C. Richard MD; Le Plessis Robinson, Centre Chirurgical Marie Lannelongue: I. Auriant MD, F. Parquin MD; Lyon, Hôpital de la Croix Rousse: C. Guerin MD; Mâcon, Centre Hospitalier de Mâcon: D. Debatty MD; Marseille, CHU La Conception: J. Billot MD; Maubeuge, Hôpital Sambre-Avesnois, W. Joos MD; Meaux, Centre Hospitalier: A. Combes MD; Metz, Hôpital Bon Secours: T. Jacques MD, J.-F. Poussel MD; Montpellier, Hôpital Gui de Chauliac: L. Landreau MD; Montpellier, Hôpital Lapeyronie: P. Chardon MD, JP. Roustan MD; Montreuil, Centre Hospitalier André Grégoire: E. Obadia MD, J.-L. Pallot MD; Moulins, Centre Hospitalier Moulins-Yzeure: F. Nicolas MD; Nancy, Hôpital Central: A. Cravoisy MD; Nantes, Hôpital Laennec: S. Chollet MD, J.-R. Ordronneau MD; Niort, Centre Hospitalier de. Niort: F. Barraud MD; Oloron Sainte Marie, Centre Hospitalier Général: J.-M. Mazou MD, Y. Gauthier MD; Orléans, Centre Hospitalier Régional: T. Boulain MD, I. Runge MD; Orsay, Centre Hospitalier Général d'Orsay: D. Benichou MD; Paris, Fondation Hôpital St Joseph: J. Carlet MD, W. Marie MD; Paris, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière: A. Duguet MD, H. Prodanovic MD, T. Similowski; Paris, Hôpital Bichat Claude Bernard: F. Schortgen MD, J.-F. Timsit MD; Paris, Hôpital Cochin: J.-D. Chiche MD, N. Nciri MD; Paris, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou: J.-L. Diehl MD, E. Guerot MD; Paris, Hôpital Saint-Antoine: E. Maury MD, G. Offenstadt MD; Paris, Hôpital Saint-Louis: E. Azoulay MD, G. Thiery MD; Paris, Hôpital Tenon: M. Fartoukh MD, F. Vincent MD; Paris, Hôtel Dieu: A. Lefebvre MD, A. Rabbat MD; Pessac, Clinique Mutualiste: R. Bedry MD; Poissy, CHI Poissy-Saint-Germain: S. Delerme MD, J.-C. Lacherade MD; Poitiers, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire: D. Chatellier MD; Pontoise, Centre Hospitalier René Dubos: J. Richecoeur MD; Rambouillet, Centre Hospitalier de. Rambouillet: N. Fadel MD; Reims, Hôpital Robert Debré: J. Cousson MD; Reims, Polyclinique Saint-André: J.-C. Farkas MD, B. Lafon MD; Roanne, Centre Hospitalier: P. Beuret MD; Roubaix, Hôpital Victor Provo: P. Herbecq MD, M. Nyunga Makenga MD; Rouen, CHU, Hôpital Charles Nicolle: J. Aboab MD, G. Minaret MD; Saint-Germain en Laye, CHI Poissy-Saint-Germain: J.-L. Ricome MD; Saintes, Centre Hospitalier: Y. Lefort MD; Suresne, Hôpital Foch: M. Djibre MD; Tulle, Centre Hospitalier: O. Hirtz MD; Valence, Centre Hospitalier: J.-Y. Petit MD; Villefranche sur Saone, Centre Hospitalier Général: L. Liron MD; Villejuif, Institut Gustave Roussy: F. Blot MD.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexandre Demoule
    • 1
    • 2
  • Emmanuelle Girou
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Jean-Christophe Richard
    • 5
  • Solenne Taillé
    • 1
  • Laurent Brochard
    • 1
    • 2
    • 6
  1. 1.Service de Réanimation MédicaleAP-HP, Hôpital Henri MondorCréteilFrance
  2. 2.Faculté de MédecineUniversité Paris 12CréteilFrance
  3. 3.CEPIAP-HP, Hôpital Henri MondorCréteilFrance
  4. 4.CeRBEP-INSERM U657Institut PasteurParisFrance
  5. 5.Réanimation MédicaleHôpital Charles NicolleRouenFrance
  6. 6.INSERM U 651CréteilFrance

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