Persisting low monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR expression predicts mortality in septic shock
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- Monneret, G., Lepape, A., Voirin, N. et al. Intensive Care Med (2006) 32: 1175. doi:10.1007/s00134-006-0204-8
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The immediate overwhelming release of inflammatory mediators in septic shock is rapidly followed by strong anti-inflammatory responses inducing a state of immunosuppression. The patients who survive the initial hyper-inflammatory step of septic shock but subsequently die may be those who do not recover from immunosuppression. We assessed whether a low monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR (mHLA-DR) expression, proposed as a marker of immunosuppression, is an independent predictor of mortality in patients who survived the initial 48 h of septic shock.
Design and setting
Prospective observational study performed in two adult intensive care units at a university hospital.
93 consecutive patients with septic shock.
Measurements and results
At days 1–2, mHLA-DR values (determined by flow cytometry) were not significantly different between survivors and non-survivors. A sharp difference became highly significant at days 3–4 when survivors had increased their values, while non-survivors had not (43% vs. 18%, percentage of HLA-DR positive monocyte, p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that low mHLA-DR (< 30%) at days 3–4 remained independently associated with mortality after adjustment for usual clinical confounders, adjusted odds ratio (CI): 6.48 (95% CI: 1.62–25.93).
The present preliminary results show that mHLA-DR is an independent predictor of mortality in septic shock patients. Being a marker of immune failure, low mHLA-DR may provide a rationale for initiating therapy to reverse immunosuppression. After validation of the current results in multicenter studies, mHLA-DR may help to stratify patients when designing a mediator-directed therapy in a time-dependent manner.