Virus infection in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease requiring ventilation
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We aimed to characterise and quantify the incidence of common infectious agents in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requiring ventilation, with a focus on respiratory viruses.
An epidemiological study conducted over 3 years.
A 12-bed intensive care unit (ICU).
ICU patients over 45 years of age with a primary diagnosis of COPD exacerbation requiring non-invasive ventilation (NIV) or ventilation via endotracheal tube (ETT).
Materials and methods
Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) and posterior pharyngeal swabs (PS) were tested for viruses with immunofluorescence assay (IFA), virus culture (VC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Paired virus and atypical pneumonia serology assays were taken. Blood, sputum and endotracheal aspirates were cultured for bacteria.
107 episodes in 105 patients were recorded. Twenty-three (21%) died within 28 days. A probable infectious aetiology was found in 69 patient episodes (64%). A virus was identified in 46 cases (43%), being the sole organism in 35 cases (33%) and part of a mixed infection in 11 cases (10%). A probable bacterial aetiology was found in 25 cases (23%). There was no statistically significant difference in clinical characteristics or outcomes between the group with virus infections and that without.
Forty-six (43%) of the patients with COPD exacerbation requiring mechanical ventilation had a probable viral pathogen. Prodromal, clinical and outcome parameters did not distinguish virus from non-virus illness. PCR was the most sensitive whilst virus culture was the least of virus assays.
KeywordsCOPD exacerbation Ventilation Infection Virus
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