Intensive Care Medicine

, Volume 30, Issue 8, pp 1638–1644 | Cite as

Hypothermia inhibits cytokine release of alveolar macrophage and activation of nuclear factor κB in endotoxemic lung

  • Chae-Man LimEmail author
  • Eun-Kyung Kim
  • Younsuck Koh
  • Woo-Sung Kim
  • Dong-Soon Kim
  • Won-Dong Kim



We have previously reported that endotoxin-induced neutrophil infiltration of the lung is lower during hypothermia than during normothermia. Because neutrophil infiltration of the lung is considered a downstream phenomenon following an activation of tissue macrophages, we examined the effects of induced hypothermia on the proximal aspects of acute lung injury, which involves alveolar macrophages and nuclear transcription of cytokine genes.

Design and setting

Animal study in an institutional animal laboratory.


Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats.


Rats were assigned to the following groups: normothermia (37°C) with saline; hypothermia (27°C) with saline; normothermia with lipopolysaccharide; hypothermia with lipopolysaccharide. After 1 h of stable temperature rats were intraperitoneally given lipopolysaccharide or an equivalent volume of normal saline. The temperature of rats was maintained within ±1°C of the target temperature for the subsequent 2 h, after which rats were subjected to lung lavage.

Measurements and results

Neutrophil count, TNF-α, and IL-1β in lavage fluid were all higher with normothermia-LPS than in normothermia-saline. Neutrophil count, TNF-α, and IL-1β levels of lavage fluid were lower with hypothermia-LPS than with normothermia-LPS. TNF-α release from cultured alveolar macrophages and NF-κB activity in lung tissue were both lower with hypothermia-LPS than with normothermia-LPS. I-κBα level in lung tissue was lower with normothermia-LPS than with the normothermia-saline, whereas I-κBα level in lung tissue did not differ between normothermia-saline and hypothermia-LPS.


Induced hypothermia suppressed the release of inflammatory cytokine from alveolar macrophages and NF-κB activation in endotoxemic lung.


Acute lung injury Hypothermia Endotoxin Cytokines Nuclear factor κB Inhibitor of κB 



The authors thank So-Yeon Park and Mee-Jung Kim, for their excellent technical assistance with this experiment. This work was presented as an abstract at the 12th European Respiratory Society Annual Congress, Stockholm, Sweden, 14–18 September 2002.

Conflict of interest:

No information supplied.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chae-Man Lim
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Eun-Kyung Kim
    • 2
  • Younsuck Koh
    • 2
  • Woo-Sung Kim
    • 2
  • Dong-Soon Kim
    • 2
  • Won-Dong Kim
    • 2
  1. 1.SeoulKorea
  2. 2.Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical CenterUniversity of Ulsan College of MedicineSeoulKorea

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