Intensive Care Medicine

, Volume 30, Issue 4, pp 536–555 | Cite as

Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock

  • R. Phillip Dellinger
  • Jean M. Carlet
  • Henry Masur
  • Herwig Gerlach
  • Thierry Calandra
  • Jonathan Cohen
  • Juan Gea-Banacloche
  • Didier Keh
  • John C. Marshall
  • Margaret M. Parker
  • Graham Ramsay
  • Janice L. Zimmerman
  • Jean-Louis Vincent
  • M. M. Levy
Special Article

Abstract

Objective

To develop management guidelines for severe sepsis and septic shock that would be of practical use for the bedside clinician, under the auspices of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign, an international effort to increase awareness and improve outcome in severe sepsis.

Design

The process included a modified Delphi method, a consensus conference, several subsequent smaller meetings of subgroups and key individuals, teleconferences, and electronic-based discussion among subgroups and among the entire committee. The modified Delphi methodology used for grading recommendations built upon a 2001 publication sponsored by the International Sepsis Forum. We undertook a systematic review of the literature graded along 5 levels to create recommendation grades from A–E, with A being the highest grade. Pediatric considerations were provided to contrast adult and pediatric management.

Participants

Participants included 44 critical care and infectious disease experts representing 11 international organizations.

Results

A total of 46 recommendations plus pediatric management considerations.

Conclusions

Evidence-based recommendations can be made regarding many aspects of the acute management of sepsis and septic shock that will hopefully translate into improved outcomes for the critically ill patient. The impact of these guidelines will be formally tested and guidelines updated annually, and even more rapidly when some important new knowledge becomes available.

Keywords

Sepsis Severe sepsis Septic shock Sepsis syndrome Infection Guidelines Evidence-based medicine Surviving Sepsis Campaign 

Supplementary material

supp.pdf (151 kb)
Supplementary Material (PDF 146 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Phillip Dellinger
    • 1
    • 15
  • Jean M. Carlet
    • 2
  • Henry Masur
    • 3
  • Herwig Gerlach
    • 4
  • Thierry Calandra
    • 5
  • Jonathan Cohen
    • 6
  • Juan Gea-Banacloche
    • 8
  • Didier Keh
    • 7
  • John C. Marshall
    • 9
  • Margaret M. Parker
    • 10
  • Graham Ramsay
    • 11
  • Janice L. Zimmerman
    • 12
  • Jean-Louis Vincent
    • 13
  • M. M. Levy
    • 14
  1. 1.Section of Critical Care MedicineCooper University HospitalCamdenUSA
  2. 2.Service de la Réanimation PolyvalenteFondation Hôpital Saint-JosephParisFrance
  3. 3.Critical Care MedicineNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  4. 4.Dept. for Anesthesiology & Critical Care MedicineVivantes-Klinikum NeukoellnBerlinGermany
  5. 5.Laboratoire de Maladies Infectieuses Dept. de Medecine InterneCentre Hospitalier Universitaire VaudoisLausanneSwitzerland
  6. 6.Brighton and Sussex Medical SchoolFalmerUnited Kingdom
  7. 7.Clinic of Anesthesiology and Surgical Intensive Care MedicineChariteBerlinGermany
  8. 8.Infectious Disease Section, Experimental Transplantation and Immunology BranchNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  9. 9.Toronto General HospitalTorontoCanada
  10. 10.PediatricsSUNY at Stony BrookStony BrookUSA
  11. 11.University HospitalMastrichtNetherlands
  12. 12.Department of MedicineBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA
  13. 13.Department of Intensive CareErasme University HospitalBrusselsBelgium
  14. 14.Brown University School of MedicineProvidenceUSA
  15. 15.Cooper Health SystemsCamdenUSA

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