Post-traumatic stress disorder-related symptoms in relatives of patients following intensive care
- 1.6k Downloads
To evaluate the effectiveness of the provision of information in the form of a rehabilitation program following critical illness in reducing psychological distress in the patients’ close family.
Randomised controlled trial, blind at follow-up with final assessment at 6 months.
Two district general hospitals and one teaching hospital.
Patients and participants
The closest family member of 104 recovering intensive care unit (ICU) patients.
Ward visits, ICU clinic appointments at 2 and 6 months. Relatives and patients received the rehabilitation program at 1 week after ICU discharge. The program comprised a 6-week self-help manual containing information about recovery from ICU, psychological information and practical advice.
Measurements and results
Psychological recovery of relatives was assessed by examining the rate of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related symptoms by 6 months after ICU. The proportion of relatives scoring in the range >19 on the Impact of Events Scale (cause for concern) was high in both groups at 49% at 6 months. No difference was shown in the rate of depression, anxiety, or PTSD-related symptoms between the study groups.
A high incidence of psychological distress was evident in relatives. Written information concerning recovery from ICU provided to the patient and their close family did not reduce this. High levels of psychological distress in patients were found to be correlated with high levels in relatives.
KeywordsIntensive care unit Relatives Critical illness Rehabilitation Anxiety PTSD-related symptoms
- 1.Jones C, Griffiths RD (1995) Social support and anxiety levels in relatives of critically ill patients. Br J Intensive Care:44–47Google Scholar
- 4.Hentinen M (1983) Need for instruction and support of the wives of patients with myocardial infarction. J Adv Nursing 8:519–524Google Scholar
- 6.Jones C, Skirrow P, Griffiths RD, Humphris G, Ingleby S, Eddleston J et al. (2003) Rehabilitation after critical illness: a randomised, controlled trial. Critical Care Med 31:2456–2461Google Scholar
- 8.Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene R (1970) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Manual. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, California, 1:20Google Scholar
- 11.Jones C (2001) Rehabilitation Following critical illness, support for patients. PhD thesis, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK, pp 154–156Google Scholar
- 12.Jones C, Humphris G, Griffiths RD (1998) Psychological morbidity following critical illness: the rationale for care after intensive care. Clin Intensive Care 9:199–205Google Scholar
- 13.Cohen J (1969) Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 14.Hollis S, Campbell F (2000) What is meant by intention to treat analysis? Survey of published randomised controlled trials. Br Med J 319:670–674Google Scholar
- 15.Horowitz M (1986) “Dosing” of trauma: stress response syndromes. Jason Aronson, Northvale, New Jersey, pp 30–33Google Scholar
- 17.Thompson DR, Cordle CJ (1988) Support of wives of myocardial infarction patients. J Adv Nursing 13:223–228Google Scholar
- 19.Wilkinson CB, Vera B (1989) Clinical responses to disaster. In: Gist R, Lubin B (eds) Psychological aspects of disaster. Wiley, New York, pp 233–265Google Scholar
- 20.Foa EB, Davidson JRT, Frances A (1999) The Expert Consensus Guideline Series: treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychol 60 (Suppl 16):1–75Google Scholar
- 21.Department of Health (2000) Comprehensive critical care. Department of Health, London, p 23Google Scholar