Effects of helium-oxygen on respiratory mechanics, gas exchange, and ventilation-perfusion relationships in a porcine model of stable methacholine-induced bronchospasm
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To explore the consequences of helium/oxygen (He/O2) inhalation on respiratory mechanics, gas exchange, and ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) relationships in an animal model of severe induced bronchospasm during mechanical ventilation.
Prospective, interventional study.
Experimental animal laboratory, university hospital.
Seven piglets were anesthetized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated, with all ventilator settings remaining constant throughout the protocol. Acute stable bronchospasm was obtained through continuous aerosolization of methacholine. Once steady-state was achieved, the animals successively breathed air/O2 and He/O2 (FIO2 0.3), or inversely, in random order. Measurements were taken at baseline, during bronchospasm, and after 30 min of He/O2 inhalation.
Bronchospasm increased lung peak inspiratory pressure (49±6.9 vs 18±1 cm H2O, P<0.001), lung resistance (22.7±1.5 vs 6.8±1.5 cm H2O.l−1.s, P<0.001), dynamic elastance (76±11.2 vs 22.8±4.1 cm H2O.l−1, P<0.001), and work of breathing (1.51±0.26 vs 0.47±0.08, P<0.001). Arterial pH decreased (7.47±0.06 vs 7.32±0.06, P<0.001), PaCO2 increased, and PaO2 decreased. Multiple inert gas elimination showed an absence of shunt, substantial increases in perfusion to low VA/Q regions, and dispersion of VA/Q distribution. He/O2 reduced lung resistance and work of breathing, and worsened hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis.
In this model, while He/O2 improved respiratory mechanics and reduced work of breathing, hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis increased. Close attention should be paid to monitoring arterial blood gases when He/O2 is used in mechanically ventilated acute severe asthma.
KeywordsAsthma Methacholine Respiratory mechanics Ventilation/perfusion MIGET Helium
This work was supported in part by the Fonds National Belge de la Recherche Scientifique, grant number 3.4506.02
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