Der Gynäkologe

, Volume 41, Issue 7, pp 490–499

Prävention des Mammakarzinoms

Leitthema
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Zusammenfassung

Aspekte der Ernährung und des Lebensstils (Lifestyle) könnten für die Entwicklung unterschiedlicher Krebsarten in westlichen Ländern verantwortlich sein. Sollten sich solche Faktoren definieren lassen, wäre auch ein echter präventiver Ansatz möglich. Der karzinogene Effekt von Ernährung und Lebensgewohnheiten für die Brustkrebsentstehung könnte indirekt sein: Zellstimulierungen (Alkohol, Hormontherapie), Hemmung von DNA-Reparaturmechanismen (Mangel an Vitaminen), Beeinflussung des Östrogenmetabolismus (Phytoöstrogene) oder Stimulierung des Tumorzellwachstums (Body-Mass-Index). Einige „Substanzen“ sind direkte Karzinogene, z. B. aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe in Tabak oder polyzyklische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe im gebratenem Fleisch. Individuelle Wirkungsunterschiede von Nahrungsstoffen auf das Brustepithel könnten durch genetische Polymorphismen bedingt sein. Der beste Ansatz für eine Brustkrebsprävention ist ein gesunder Lebensstil – „gesunde“ Ernährung, physische Aktivität, normales Körpergewicht und Vermeidung von Genussmitteln – von Kindheit an.

Schlüsselwörter

Brustkrebs Ernährung Lebensgewohnheiten Prävention Risikofaktoren 

Prevention of breast cancer

Abstract

Aspects of nutrition and lifestyle may be largely responsible for the development of common cancers in western countries. Today’s well-informed and increasingly health conscious population is intensively seeking to identify and eliminate these putative carcinogenic risk factors as well as to exploit the preventive effects that have been attributed to certain dietary components. Nutrition and lifestyle may exert carcinogenic effects indirectly by cell stimulation (alcohol, hormone therapy), inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms (lack of vitamins), effecting estrogen metabolism (phytoestrogens) or as promotors to enhance the growth of tumors (body mass index). Some “substances” may act as carcinogens themselves, e.g. aromatic hydrocarbons in tobacco or increased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in overcooked meat. Individual differences in the effects of nutritional factors on mammary epithelia could be caused by genetic polymorphisms. A lifestyle which consists of a “healthy diet” with normal body mass index, physical activity and abstention from stimulants, is recommended from early childhood onwards.

Keywords

Breast cancer Nutrition Lifestyle Prevention Risk factors 

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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universitäts-Frauenklinik RostockRostockDeutschland

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