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Phytoremediation of Industrial Sewage Sludge with Eichhornia crassipes, Salvinia molesta and Pistia stratiotes in Batch Fed Free Water Flow Constructed Wetlands

Abstract

Phytoremediation of industrial sewage sludge with Eichhornia crassipes, Salvinia molesta and Pistia stratiotes in pilot scale batch fed free water flow constructed wetlands was done in order to assess the suitability of remediated sludge as fertilizer. S. molesta showed the greatest decreases of Zn (36.0%), Fe (26.6%), Cu (32.6%), Cr (58.6%) and Ni, (26.9%) while P. startiotes and E. crassipes, respectively, showed the greatest Cd (27.1%) and Pb (42.4%) decreases. Metals, nutrients (total N and P) and fecal coliform in remediated sludge complied with regulatory standards and P. startiotes showed the greatest electrical conductivity (EC) (65.6%) decrease. The phytotoxicity assay on Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleraceae exhibited more than 50% of germination index from the sludge remediated with S. molesta. The results demonstrate that phytoremediation with hyper accumulators followed by phytotoxicity assay could be used to support decisions for the appropriate use of land disposed industrial sewage sludge.

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Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge National Research Council Grant No: 15-147 for financial assistance. Sincere thanks are also extended to Mr. Harsha P. Weerarathna of the Department of Zoology and Environmental Management, University of Kelaniya for the technical assistance given in the metal analysis using atomic absorption spectrometry.

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Correspondence to Mangala Yatawara.

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Kodituwakku, K.A.R.K., Yatawara, M. Phytoremediation of Industrial Sewage Sludge with Eichhornia crassipes, Salvinia molesta and Pistia stratiotes in Batch Fed Free Water Flow Constructed Wetlands. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-020-02805-0

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Keywords

  • Germination index
  • Industrial sewage sludge
  • Phytoremediation
  • Phytotoxicity