Advertisement

Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Sensitivity of Warm-Water Fishes and Rainbow Trout to Selected Contaminants

Abstract

Guidelines for developing water quality standards allow U.S. states to exclude toxicity data for the family Salmonidae (trout and salmon) when deriving guidelines for warm-water habitats. This practice reflects the belief that standards based on salmonid data may be overprotective of toxic effects on other fish taxa. In acute tests with six chemicals and eight fish species, the salmonid, Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), was the most sensitive species tested with copper, zinc, and sulfate, but warm-water species were most sensitive to nickel, chloride, and ammonia. Overall, warm-water fishes, including sculpins (Cottidae) and sturgeons (Acipenseridae), were about as sensitive as salmonids in acute tests and in limited chronic testing with Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) and Mottled Sculpin (Cottus bairdi). In rankings of published acute values, invertebrate taxa were most sensitive for all six chemicals tested and there was no trend for greater sensitivity of salmonids compared to warm-water fish.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1

Data Availability

Data and metadata for this manuscript is available online in a USGS data release (Dormann et al. 2020; https://doi.org/10.5066/P99K901R).

References

  1. ASTM (2015a) Standard guide for conducting acute toxicity tests on test materials with fishes, macroinvertebrates, and amphibians, E 729. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Volume 11.05. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA

  2. ASTM (2015b) Standard guide for conducting early life-stage toxicity tests with fishes, E 1241. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, vol 11.05. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, pp 550–577

  3. Besser JM, Wang N, Dwyer FJ, Mayer FL, Ingersoll CG (2005) Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened fishes: Part II. Chronic toxicity of copper and pentachlorophenol to two endangered species and two surrogate species. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 48:55–165

  4. Besser JM, Mebane CA, Mount DR, Ivey CD, Kunz JL, Greer IE, May TW, Ingersoll CG (2007) Sensitivity of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) to acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc. Environ Toxicol Chem 26:6–14

  5. Besser JM, Dormann RA, Hardesty DH, Ingersoll C (2016) Survival and growth of freshwater pulmonate and nonpulmonate snails in 28-day exposures to copper, ammonia, and pentachlorophenol. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 70:321–331

  6. Brix KV, Keithly J, DeForest DK, Laughlin J (2004) Acute and chronic toxicity of nickel to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Environ Toxicol Chem 23:2221–2228

  7. Buhl KJ, Hamilton SJ (1990) Comparative toxicity of inorganic contaminants released by placer mining to early life stages of salmonids. Ecotox Environ Safety 20:325–342

  8. Calfee RD, Little EE, Puglis HJ, Scott E, Brumbaugh WG, Mebane CA (2014) Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures. Environ Toxicol Chem 33:2259–2272. https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.2684

  9. Dorman, R, Ivey CD, Besser JM (2020) Sensitivity of warm-water fishes and rainbow trout to selected contaminants. U.S. Geological Survey Data Release. https://doi.org/10.5066/P99K901R

  10. Dwyer FJ, Mayer F, Sappington L, Buckler DL, Bridges C, Greer I, Hardesty D, Henke C, Ingersoll CG, Kunz J (2005) Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aqu1atic species: Part I. Acute toxicity of five chemicals. Archives Environ Contam Toxicol 48:143–154

  11. Erickson RJ (2010) Toxicity relationship analysis program (TRAP), version 1.21, EPA/600/C-11/002. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC

  12. Ivey CD, Besser JM, Ingersoll CG, Wang N, Rogers DC, Raimondo S, Bauer CR, Hammer EJ (2017) Acute sensitivity of the vernal pool fairy shrimp, Branchinecta lynchi (Anostraca; Branchinectidae), and surrogate species to 10 chemicals. Environ Toxicol Chem 36:797–806

  13. Little EE, Calfee RD, Linder G (2012) Toxicity of copper to early-life stage Kootenai River White Sturgeon, Columbia River White Sturgeon, and Rainbow Trout. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 63:400–408. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-012-9782-3

  14. Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (2012) Aquatic life water quality standards technical support document for cadmium. Document number: wq-s6–14. https://www.pca.state.mn.us/sites/default/files/wq-s6-14.pdf. Accessed 11 Dec, 2019

  15. Stephan CE, Mount DI, Hansen DJ, Gentile JH, Chapman GA, Brungs WA (1985) Guidelines for deriving numerical national water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses, EPA-PB85-227049. U.S Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN

  16. Wang N, Ingersoll CG, Dorman RA, Brumbaugh WG, Mebane CA, Kunz JL, Hardesty DK (2014) Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures. Environ Toxicol Chem 33:2246–2258

  17. Wang N, Ivey CD, Ingersoll CG, Brumbaugh WG, Alvarez D, Hammer EJ, Bauer CR, Augspurger T, Raimondo S, Barnhart MC (2017) Acute sensitivity of a broad range of freshwater mussels to chemicals with different modes of toxic action. Environ Toxicol Chem 36:786–796

  18. Warren ML, Burr BM, Tomelleri J (2014) Freshwater fishes of North America: Petromyzontidae to Catostomidae, vol 1. JHU Press, Baltimore

Download references

Acknowledgements

Funding for this study was provided in part by the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has not formally reviewed this publication and the views expressed here may not reflect the views of USEPA. We thank Ed Hammer and Candace Bauer of USEPA Region 5 for many helpful discussions. Nathan Eckert of US Fish and Wildlife Service provided fish species for testing. USGS personnel provided technical assistance with fish culture (James Candrl, Ryan Warbritton, Dave Whites); toxicity testing (Eric Brunson, Doug Hardesty, Brittany King, James Kunz, Ben Stalschmidt); and analyses of metals and anions (Vanessa Melton, Mike Walther). This manuscript was reviewed and approved in accordance with USGS policy. Peer reviews were provided by Dr. Bethany Kunz and two anonymous reviewers. This research was conducted in accordance with the USGS-CERC Animal Welfare Plan. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. All data produced by this federally-funded project has been made available to the public as a USGS data release (Dorman et al. 2020).

Author information

Correspondence to John M. Besser.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Besser, J.M., Dorman, R., Ivey, C.D. et al. Sensitivity of Warm-Water Fishes and Rainbow Trout to Selected Contaminants. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 104, 321–326 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-020-02788-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Water quality criteria
  • Salmonidae
  • Warm-water fish
  • Species sensitivity distribution