Advertisement

Application of Iron-Based Materials for Remediation of Mercury in Water and Soil

  • Yanyan Gong
  • Yao Huang
  • Mengxia Wang
  • Fangfei Liu
  • Tong ZhangEmail author
Focused Review

Abstract

Mercury contamination in soil and water has become a major concern to environmental quality and human health. Among the existing remediation technologies for mercury pollution control, sorption via iron-based materials has received wide attention as they are environmental friendly and economic, and their reactivity is high and controllable through modulating the morphology and surface properties of particulate materials. This paper aimed to provide a comprehensive overview on environmental application of a variety of iron-based sorbents, namely, zero valent iron, iron oxides, and iron sulfides, for mercury remediation. Techniques to improve the stability of these materials while enhancing mercury sequestration, such as nano-scale size control, surface functionalization, and mechanical support, were summarized. Mechanisms and factors affecting the interaction between mercury and iron-based materials were also discussed. Current knowledge gaps and future research needs are identified to facilitate a better understanding of molecular-level reaction mechanisms between iron-based materials and mercury and the long-term stability of the immobilized mercury.

Keywords

Mercury Heavy metal Soil remediation Water treatment Iron-based sorbents 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41503085, 41603099), the Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin (Grant No. 17JCYBJC23100), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

References

  1. Alijani H, Shariatinia Z, Aroujalian MA (2015) Water assisted synthesis of MWCNTs over natural magnetic rock: an effective magnetic adsorbent with enhanced mercury(II) adsorption property. Chem Eng J 281:468–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. AMAP/UNEP (2013) Technical background report for the global mercury assessment. Arctic Monitoring and Programme A (AMAP)/The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Norway/UNEP ChemicalsBranch, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  3. Arshadi M, Abdolmaleki MK, Mousavinia F, Foroughifard S, Karimzadeh A (2017) Nano modification of NZVI with an aquatic plant Azolla filiculoides to remove Pb(II) and Hg(II) from water: aging time and mechanism study. J Colloid Interface Sci 486:296–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barnett MO, Turner RR, Singer PC (2001) Oxidative dissolution of metacinnabar (β-HgS) by dissolved oxygen. Appl Geochem 16:1499–1512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Biernat RJ, Robins RG (1972) High-temperature potential/pH diagrams for the iron–water and iron–water–sulphur systems. Electrochim Acta 17:1261–1283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blue LY, Jana P, Atwood DA (2010) Aqueous mercury precipitation with the synthetic dithiolate, BDTH2. Fuel 89:1326–1330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boening DW (2000) Ecological effects, transport, and fate of mercury: a general review. Chemosphere 40:1335–1351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bollen A, Wenke A, Biester H (2008) Mercury speciation analyses in HgCl2-contaminated soils and groundwater—implications for risk assessment and remediation strategies. Water Res 42:91–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bower J, Savage KS, Weinman B, Barnett MO, Hamilton WP, Harper WF (2008) Immobilization of mercury by pyrite (FeS2). Environ Pollut 156:504–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chethan PD, Vishalakshi B (2013) Synthesis of ethylenediamine modified chitosan and evaluation for removal of divalent metal ions. Carbohydr Polym 97:530–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cui L, Wang Y, Gao L, Hu L, Wei Q, Du B (2015) Removal of Hg(II) from aqueous solution by resin loaded magnetic beta-cyclodextrin bead and graphene oxide sheet: synthesis, adsorption mechanism and separation properties. J Colloid Interface Sci 456:42–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dodi G, Hritcu D, Lisa G, Popa MI (2012) Core–shell magnetic chitosan particles functionalized by grafting: synthesis and characterization. Chem Eng J 203:130–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Donia AM, Atia AA, Abouzayed FI (2012) Preparation and characterization of nano-magnetic cellulose with fast kinetic properties towards the adsorption of some metal ions. Chem Eng J 191:22–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Duan Y, Han DS, Batchelor B, Abdel-Wahab A (2016) Synthesis, characterization, and application of pyrite for removal of mercury. Colloids Surf A 490:326–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ehrhardt J-J, Behra P, Bonnissel-Gissinger P, Alnot M (2000) XPS study of the sorption of Hg(II) onto pyrite FeS2. Surf Interface Anal 30:269–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Elwakeel KZ, Guibal E (2015) Selective removal of Hg(II) from aqueous solution by functionalized magnetic-macromolecular hybrid material. Chem Eng J 281:345–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Essa AMM, Macaskie LE, Brown NL (2002) Mechanisms of mercury bioremediation. Biochem Soc Trans 30:672–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fu F, Dionysiou DD, Liu H (2014) The use of zero-valent iron for groundwater remediation and wastewater treatment: a review. J Hazard Mater 267:194–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gong Y, Liu Y, Xiong Z, Kaback D, Zhao D (2012) Immobilization of mercury in field soil and sediment using carboxymethyl cellulose stabilized iron sulfide nanoparticles. Nanotechnology 23(29):294007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gong Y, Liu Y, Xiong Z, Zhao D (2014) Immobilization of mercury by carboxymethyl cellulose stabilized iron sulfide nanoparticles: reaction mechanisms and effects of stabilizer and water chemistry. Environ Sci Technol 48:3986–3994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gu B, Phelps TJ, Liang L, Dickey MJ, Roh Y, Kinsall BL, Palumbo AV, Jacobs GK (1999) Biogeochemical dynamics in zero-valent iron columns: implications for permeable reactive barriers. Environ Sci Technol 33:2170–2177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Guimarães A, Ciminelli V, Vasconcelos W (2009) Smectite organofunctionalized with thiol groups for adsorption of heavy metal ions. Appl Clay Sci 42:410–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Guo X, Du B, Wei Q, Yang J, Hu L, Yan L, Xu W (2014) Synthesis of amino functionalized magnetic graphenes composite material and its application to remove Cr(VI), Pb(II), Hg(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) from contaminated water. J Hazard Mater 278:211–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hakami O, Zhang Y, Banks CJ (2012) Thiol-functionalised mesoporous silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles for high efficiency removal and recovery of Hg from water. Water Res 46:3913–3922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Han DS, Orillano M, Khodary A, Duan Y, Batchelor B, Abdel-Wahab A (2014) Reactive iron sulfide (FeS)-supported ultrafiltration for removal of mercury (Hg(II)) from water. Water Res 53:310–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. He F, Wang W, Moon JW, Howe J, Pierce EM, Liang L (2012) Rapid removal of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions using thiol-functionalized Zn-doped biomagnetite particles. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 4:4373–4379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hsiao H, Ullrich SM, Tanton TW (2011) Burdens of mercury in residents of Temirtau, Kazakhstan I: hair mercury concentrations and factors of elevated hair mercury levels. Sci Total Environ 409:2272–2280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Huang Y, Tang J, Gai L, Gong Y, Guan H, He R, Lyu H (2017) Different approaches for preparing a novel thiol-functionalized graphene oxide/Fe–Mn and its application for aqueous methylmercury removal. Chem Eng J 319:229–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jeong HY, Klaue B, Blum JD, Hayes KF (2007) Sorption of mercuric ion by synthetic nanocrystalline mackinawite (FeS). Environ Sci Technol 41:7699–7705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kenneke JF, McCutcheon SC (2003) Use of pretreatment zones and zero-valent iron for the remediation of chloroalkenes in an oxic aquifer. Environ Sci Technol 37:2829–2835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ku Y, Wu MH, Shen YS (2002) Mercury removal from aqueous solutions by zinc cementation. Waste Manage 22:721–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lewis AS, Huntington TG, Marvin-DiPasquale MC, Amirbahman A (2016) Mercury remediation in wetland sediment using zero-valent iron and granular activated carbon. Environ Pollut 212:366–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Liu J, Valsaraj KT, Devai I, DeLaune RD (2008) Immobilization of aqueous Hg(II) by mackinawite (FeS). J Hazard Mater 157:432–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Liu T, Wang Z, Yan X, Zhang B (2014) Removal of mercury(II) and chromium(VI) from wastewater using a new and effective composite: pumice-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron. Chem Eng J 245:34–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lu X, Huangfu X, Ma J (2014) Removal of trace mercury(II) from aqueous solution by in situ formed Mn–Fe (hydr)oxides. J Hazard Mater 280:71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mahmoud ME, Ahmed SB, Osman MM, Abdel-Fattah TM (2015) A novel composite of nanomagnetite-immobilized-baker’s yeast on the surface of activated carbon for magnetic solid phase extraction of Hg(II). Fuel 139:614–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Maia LFO, Hott RC, Ladeira PCC, Batista BL, Andrade TG, Santos MS, Faria MCS, Oliveira LCA, Monteiro DS, Pereira MC, Rodrigues JL (2019) Simple synthesis and characterization of L-Cystine functionalized δ-FeOOH for highly efficient Hg(II) removal from contamined water and mining waste. Chemosphere 215:422–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Majewski P (2006) Nanomaterials for water treatment. In: Kumar CSSR (ed) Nanotechnologies for the life sciences. Wiley, New York, pp 211–233Google Scholar
  39. Monteagudo JM, Ortiz MJ (2000) Removal of inorganic mercury from mine waste water by ion exchange. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 75:767–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Oveisi F, Nikazar M, Razzaghi MH, Mirrahimi MA-S, Jafarzadeh MT (2017) Effective removal of mercury from aqueous solution using thiol-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles. Environ Nanotechnol Monit Manage 7:130–138Google Scholar
  41. Parham H, Zargar B, Shiralipour R (2012) Fast and efficient removal of mercury from water samples using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles modified with 2-mercaptobenzothiazole. J Hazard Mater 205–206:94–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Richard JH, Bischoff C, Ahrens CGM, Biester H (2016) Mercury(II) reduction and co-precipitation of metallic mercury on hydrous ferric oxide in contaminated groundwater. Sci Total Environ 539:36–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Roberts EJ, Rowland SP (1973) Removal of mercury from aqueous solutions by nitrogen-containing chemically modified cotton. Environ Sci Technol 7:552–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sayles GD, You G, Wang M, Kupferle MJ (1997) DDT, DDD, and DDE dechlorination by zero-valent iron. Environ Sci Technol 31:3448–3454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Stumm W, Morgan JJ (1995) Aquatic chemistry: chemical equlibria and rates in naureal waters. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. Sun Y, Lou Z, Yu J, Zhou X, Lv D, Zhou J, Baig SA, Xu X (2017a) Immobilization of mercury (II) from aqueous solution using Al2O3-supported nanoscale FeS. Chem Eng J 323:483–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sun Y, Lv D, Zhou J, Zhou X, Lou Z, Baig SA, Xu X (2017b) Adsorption of mercury (II) from aqueous solutions using FeS and pyrite: a comparative study. Chemosphere 185:452–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tang J, Huang Y, Gong Y, Lyu H, Wang Q, Ma J (2016) Preparation of a novel graphene oxide/Fe-Mn composite and its application for aqueous Hg(II) removal. J Hazard Mater 316:151–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. United States Environmental Protection Agency (2018) National primary drinking water regulations. https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water/national-primary-drinking-water-regulations. Accessed 31 Dec 2018
  50. Wang Z, Xu J, Hu Y, Zhao H, Zhou J, Liu Y, Lou Z, Xu X (2016) Functional nanomaterials: study on aqueous Hg(II) adsorption by magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2-SH nanoparticles. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 60:394–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wang H, Liu Y, Ifthikar J, Shi L, Khan A, Chen Z, Chen Z (2018) Towards a better understanding on mercury adsorption by magnetic bio-adsorbents with gamma-Fe2O3 from pinewood sawdust derived hydrochar: influence of atmosphere in heat treatment. Bioresour Technol 256:269–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Weisener CG, Sale KS, Smyth DJA, Blowes DW (2005) Field column study using zerovalent iron for mercury removal from contaminated groundwater. Environm Sci Technol 39:6306–6312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wilkin RT, McNeil MS (2003) Laboratory evaluation of zero-valent iron to treat water impacted by acid mine drainage. Chemosphere 53:715–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. World Health Organization (2017) Guidelines for drinking-water quality: 4th edition incorporating the 1st addendumGoogle Scholar
  55. Xiong Z, He F, Zhao D, Barnett MO (2009) Immobilization of mercury in sediment using stabilized iron sulfide nanoparticles. Water Res 43:5171–5179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Yu B, Wang X, Xing W, Yang H, Wang X, Song L, Hu Y, Lo S (2013) Enhanced thermal and mechanical properties of functionalized graphene/thiol-ene systems by photopolymerization technology. Chem Eng J 228:318–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Yu J, Yue B, Wu X, Liu Q, Jiao F, Jiang X, Chen X (2016) Removal of mercury by adsorption: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:5056–5076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zandi-Atashbar N, Ensafi AA, Ahoor AH (2018) Magnetic Fe2CuO4/rGO nanocomposite as an efficient recyclable catalyst to convert discard tire into diesel fuel and as an effective mercury adsorbent from wastewater. J Clean Prod 172:68–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zhang S, Zhang Y, Liu J, Xu Q, Xiao H, Wang X, Xu H, Zhou J (2013) Thiol modified Fe3O4@SiO2 as a robust, high effective, and recycling magnetic sorbent for mercury removal. Chem Eng J 226:30–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Zhang T, Kucharzyk KH, Kim B, Deshusses MA, Hsu-Kim H (2014a) Net methylation of mercury in estuarine sediment slurry microcosms amended with dissolved, nanoparticulate, and microparticulate mercuric sulfides. Environ Sci Technol 48:9133–9141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Zhang Y, Yan L, Xu W, Guo X, Cui L, Gao L, Wei Q, Du B (2014b) Adsorption of Pb(II) and Hg(II) from aqueous solution using magnetic CoFe2O4-reduced graphene oxide. J Mol Liq 191:177–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zhou X, Zhang J, Qiu X, Wang D (2013) Removal of Hg in wastewater by zero-valent iron. Huan Jing Ke Xue 34:4304–4310 (in Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yanyan Gong
    • 1
  • Yao Huang
    • 1
  • Mengxia Wang
    • 1
  • Fangfei Liu
    • 2
  • Tong Zhang
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Environment, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and HealthJinan UniversityGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution ControlNankai UniversityTianjinChina

Personalised recommendations