Emission of Unintentionally Produced Persistent Organic Pollutants from Some Industrial Processes in Northern Vietnam

  • Hue Nguyen Thi
  • Thuy Nguyen Thi Thu
  • Long Pham Hai
  • Hai Nguyen Thanh
  • Hai Chu Viet
  • Hue Chu Thi
  • Truong Nghiem Xuan
  • Nguyen Hoang Tung


Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs), PeCB and HCB were determined in flue gas, fly ash and bottom ash samples collected from brick production, steel production, and zinc production plants, an industrial waste incinerator and a medical waste incinerator in northern Vietnam to understand the contamination levels, accumulation patterns and extent of emission. Total TEQs concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in flue gas and ash samples from these industrial plants ranged from 0.304 to 50.55 pg/Nm3 and 1.43 to 440 pg/g, respectively. PeCB and HCB residues in flue gas samples ranged from 0.839 to 46.59 ng/Nm3 and 1.16 to 60.5 ng/Nm3, respectively. The emission factors of 4.8–740 ngTEQs/tonne for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, 67.12–240.7 µg/ton for PeCB and 11.64–889.3 µg/ton for HCB were obtained in flue gas samples. This is among the first reports on the emission factor of PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs, PeCB, HCB in brick production, zinc production and waste incineration in Vietnam.


PCDD/Fs Pentachlorobenzene Hexachlorobenzene Metallurgy Waste incineration Vietnam 



The authors wish to acknowledge financial support from the Vietnam National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED) under the grant number 104.04-2015.45. We also wish to thank the various industrial facilities for their kind cooperation and support for collection of flue gas and ash samples.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hue Nguyen Thi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Thuy Nguyen Thi Thu
    • 1
    • 3
  • Long Pham Hai
    • 1
  • Hai Nguyen Thanh
    • 1
  • Hai Chu Viet
    • 1
  • Hue Chu Thi
    • 4
  • Truong Nghiem Xuan
    • 5
  • Nguyen Hoang Tung
    • 1
  1. 1.Vietnam Academy of Science and TechnologyInstitute of Environmental Technology and Graduate University of Science and TechnologyHanoiVietnam
  2. 2.University of Science and Technology of HanoiHanoiVietnam
  3. 3.Faculty of ChemistryTNU University of Science, Thai Nguyen UniversityThai NguyenVietnam
  4. 4.Faculty of ChemistryVNU University of ScienceHanoiVietnam
  5. 5.Vietnam - Russia Tropical Center, Ministry of DefenseHanoiVietnam

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