Waterborn Genotoxicity in Southern Brazil Using Astyanax bifasciatus (Pisces: Teleostei)

  • Cátia Cappelli Wachtel
  • Elton Celton de Oliveira
  • Thiago Cintra Maniglia
  • Andre Smith-Johannsen
  • Aliciane de Almeida Roque
  • Nédia de Castilhos Ghisi


Water bodies are often negatively affected by unmediated expansion of surrounding human populations. This makes it essential to establish growth planning strategies that balance productivity and sustainability when creating a viable ecological equilibrium. This study aimed to evaluate genotoxic effects in southern Brazil, using biomarkers in the fish Astyanax bifasciatus, during summer and winter of 2016. The erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities test and the micronucleus test as well as the blood and liver comet assay were used to determine genetic biomarker damage. Four locations and a control point (CP) were sampled in this study. The results demonstrated genotoxicity at all sample locations in the river as compared to the CP in all tests. This is concerning as this water source is the only supply for human populations adjacent and further flows into the greater Iguaçu river basin.


Water contamination Biomonitoring Comet assay Xenobiotics ENA 



This study was supported in part by CNPq (Brazilian Agency for Science and Technology) and Fundação Araucária.


  1. Adapar Agência de Defesa Agropecuária do Paraná (2016). Disponível. Acesso dia 19 de abril de 2017
  2. Ateeq BM, Abul FM, Niamat A, Waseem A (2002) Induction of micronuclei and erythrocyte alterations in the catfish Clarias batrachus by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and butachlor. Mutat Res 518:35–144Google Scholar
  3. Beal DA (2014) Recursos hídricos: Uso de água na indústria—o caso de Dois Vizinhos no Paraná-PR, p 1–20Google Scholar
  4. Bolognesi C, Hayashi M (2011) Micronucleus assay in aquatic animals. Mutagenesis 26(1):205–213Google Scholar
  5. Bueno-Krawczyk ACD, Guiloski IC, Piancini LDS et al (2015) Multibiomarker in fish to evaluate a river used to water public supply. Chemosphere 135:257–264. Google Scholar
  6. Carniel SI, Feliceti ML, Schoeninger FP et al (2015) Estado de trófia de duas represas rasas paranaenses em época de seca, III Congresso de Ciência e Tecnologia da UTFPR-DVGoogle Scholar
  7. Carrasco KR, Tilbury KL, Myers MS (1990) Assessment of the piscine micronucleus test as an in situ biological indicator of chemical contaminant effects. Fish Aquat 47:2123–2136Google Scholar
  8. CONCEA—Conselho Nacional de Controle de Experimentação Animal (2013) Diretrizes da prática de Eutanásia, p 54Google Scholar
  9. Da Silva MD, Rossi SC, Ghisi NC et al (2014) Using multibiomarker approach as a tool to improve the management plan for a Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 92(5):602–608. Google Scholar
  10. Duarte ID, Dias MC, David JAO, Matsumoto ST (2012) A qualidade da água da Lagoa Jacuném (Espírito Santo, Brasil) em relação a aspectos genotóxicos e mutagênicos, mensurados respectivamente pelo ensaio do cometa e teste do micronúcleo em peixes da espécie Oreochromis niloticus. Rev Brasileira de Biociências 10(2):211–219Google Scholar
  11. Fagundes NA, Júnior CVSG (2008) Diagnóstico ambiental e delimitação de Áreas de preservação permanente em um assentamento rural. Acta Scientiarum Biol Sci 30(1):29–38Google Scholar
  12. Ferraro VM, Fenocchio AS, Mantovani MS et al (2004) Mutagenic effects of tributyltin and inorganic lead (Pb II) on the fish H. malabaricus as evaluated using the comet assay and the piscine micronucleus and chromosome aberration tests. Genet Mol Biol 27(1):103–107Google Scholar
  13. Freire CA, Souza-Bastos LR, Chiesse J et al (2015) A multibiomarker evaluation of urban, industrial, and agricultural exposure of small characins in a large freshwater basin in southern Brazil. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:13263. Google Scholar
  14. Freitas CEC, Siqueira-Souza FKS (2009) O uso de peixes como bioindicador ambiental em áreas de várzea da bacia amazônica. Rev Agroambiental 1:39–45Google Scholar
  15. Garavello JC, Sampaio FAA (2010) Five new species of genus Astyanax Baird & Girard, 1854 from Rio Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil (Ostariophysi, Characiformes, Characidae). Braz J Biol 70(3 Suppl):847–865Google Scholar
  16. Ghisi NC, Cestari MM (2013) Genotoxic effects of the herbicide Roundup® in the fish Corydoras paleatus (Jenyns 1842) after short-term, environmentally low concentration exposure. Environ Monit Assess 185(4):3201–3207. Google Scholar
  17. Ghisi NC, Oliveira EC (2013) Evidence of contamination in the main body of the public water supply of Campo Mourão-Pr: an analysis. Rev Saúde e Biol 8(2):13–22Google Scholar
  18. Ghisi NDC, Oliveira EC, Fávaro LF et al (2014) In situ assessment of a neotropical fish to evaluate pollution in a river receiving agricultural and urban wastewater. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 93(6):699–709. Google Scholar
  19. Gutiérrez JM, Villar S, Plavan AA (2014) Micronucleus test in fishes as indicators of environmental quality in subestuaries of the Río de la Plata (Uruguay). Mar Pollut Bull 91(2):518–523Google Scholar
  20. Heddle JA (1973) A rapid in vivo test for chromosomal damage. Mutat Res 8(2):187–190Google Scholar
  21. Hussain B, Sultana T, Sultana S et al (2016) Variation in genotoxic susceptibility and biomarker responses in Cirrhinus mrigala and Catla from different ecological niches of the Chenab river. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(14):14589–14599. Google Scholar
  22. Jager T, Barsib A, Hamda NT et al (2014) Dynamic energy budgets in population ecotoxicology: applications and outlook. Ecol Model 280:140–147Google Scholar
  23. Jesus BT, Carvalho CEV (2008) Utilização de biomarcadores em peixes como ferramenta para avaliação de contaminação ambiental por mercúrio (Hg). Oecol Brasiliensis 12(4):680–693Google Scholar
  24. Khan MM, Moniruzzaman M, Mostakim GM et al (2018) Aberrations of the peripheral erythrocytes and its recovery patterns in a freshwater teleost, silver barb exposed to profenofos. Environ Pollut 234:830–837. Google Scholar
  25. Martinez CB, Souza MM (2002) Acute effects of nitrite on ion regulation in two neotropical fish species. Comp Biochem Physiol 133(1):151–160Google Scholar
  26. Moreno NC, Sofia SH, Martinez CBR (2014) Genotoxic effects of the herbicide Roundup Transorb and its active ingredient glyphosate on the fish Prochilodus lineatus. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 37(1):448–454Google Scholar
  27. Picado A, Mendonc E, Silva L et al (2009) Effect of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate on the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings. Environ Toxicol 24(3):296–303. Google Scholar
  28. Pigosso M, Bonfante E, Farias E et al (2009) Diagnóstico Ambiental da Bacia do Rio Jirau Alto—Dois Vizinhos—Paraná. Rev Eletrônica do Curso de Geogr—Campus Jataí (UFG) 13:175–193Google Scholar
  29. Prasad S, Srivastava S, Singh M, Shukla Y (2009) Clastogenic effects of glyphosate in bone marrow cells of swiss albino mice. J Toxicol 2009(5):308985. Google Scholar
  30. Praveena M, Sailaja MC, Rao KJ (2014) Clastogenic effects induced due to chromium intoxication in a fresh water fish, Labeo rohita (Hamilton). Int J Adv Sci Tech Res 1(4):647–656Google Scholar
  31. Rabitto IDS, Bastos WR, Almeida R et al (2011) Mercury and DDT exposure risk to fish-eating human populations in Amazon. Environ Int 37(1):56–65Google Scholar
  32. Ramsdorf WA, Almeida MIM, Artoni RF, Cestari MM (2012) Handling of Astyanax sp. For biomonitoring in Canguiri farm within a fountainhead (Ira river environment preservation area) through the use of genetic biomarkers. Environ Monit Assess 184(10):5841–5849. Google Scholar
  33. Richards JP, Glegg GA, Cullinane S (2000) Environmental regulation: industry and the marine environment. J Environ Manag 58:(2):119–134Google Scholar
  34. Rigotto RM, Vasconcelos DPE, Rocha MM (2014) Pesticide use in Brazil and problems for public health. Caderno de Saúde Pública 30(7):1360–1362Google Scholar
  35. Russo C, Rocco L, Morescalchi MA, Stingo V (2004) Assessment of environmental stress by the micronucleus test and the comet assay on the genome of teleost populations from two natural environments. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 57(2):168–174Google Scholar
  36. Scalon MCS, Rechenmacher C, Siebel AM et al (2010) Evaluation of Sinos river water genotoxicity using the comet assay in fish. Braz J Biol 70(4):1217–1222Google Scholar
  37. Schmid W (1975) The micronucleus test. Mutat Res 31(1):9–15Google Scholar
  38. Silva de Assis HC, Silva CA, Obaa E et al (2013) Hematologic and hepatic responses of the freshwater fish Hoplias malabaricus after saxitoxin exposure. Toxicon 66:25–30Google Scholar
  39. Speit G, Hartmann A (1999) The comet assay (single-cell gel test), a sensitive genotoxicity test for the detection of DNA damage and repair. In: Henderson DS (ed) Methods in molecular biology: DNA repair protocols—eukaryotic systems. Human Press, Totowa, pp 203–211Google Scholar
  40. Valavanidis A, Vlahogiannia T, Dassenakis M, Scoullos M (2006) Molecular biomarkers of oxidative stress in aquatic organisms in relation to toxic environmental pollutants. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 64(2):178–189. Google Scholar
  41. Van Der Oost R, Beyer J, Vermeulen NPE (2003) Fish bioaccumulation and biomarkers in environmental risk assessment: a review. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 13(2):57–149Google Scholar
  42. Vannote RL, Minshall GW, Cummins KW et al (1980) The river continuum concept. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 37:130–137Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cátia Cappelli Wachtel
    • 1
  • Elton Celton de Oliveira
    • 1
  • Thiago Cintra Maniglia
    • 1
  • Andre Smith-Johannsen
    • 3
  • Aliciane de Almeida Roque
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nédia de Castilhos Ghisi
    • 4
  1. 1.Programa de Pós-Graduação em AgroecossistemasFederal University of Technology - Paraná (UTFPR)Dois VizinhosBrazil
  2. 2.Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Celular e Molecular, Setor de Ciências Biológicas, Departamento de Biologia CelularUniversidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR)CuritibaBrazil
  3. 3.Oregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  4. 4.Programa de Pós-Graduação em BiotecnologiaFederal University of Technology - Paraná (UTFPR)Dois VizinhosBrazil

Personalised recommendations