Integrated Biomarker Responses in Livers of the Pale Chub Zacco platypus for Risk Assessment of a Stream Contaminated by Wastewater Effluents
We evaluated the effects of wastewater effluents on pale chub (Zacco platypus) in a contaminated stream by integrating genotoxic, oxidative stress, histological, and physiological biomarkers. The metal pollution index indicated higher pollution loads at downstream sites (DS1 and DS2) compared with the upstream reference site. Significantly higher nuclear abnormality confirmed the existence of genotoxicity (p < 0.05) at downstream sites. Antioxidant activity (catalase and glutathione S-transferase) and lipid peroxidation levels in livers of Z. platypus were also significantly higher at the DS1 site (p < 0.05). The liver somatic index was also influenced, with abnormal histological alterations in the liver, possibly caused by heavy metal accumulation (Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb). The integrated biomarker response value was the highest at DS1 (13.74) followed by DS2 (1.94), indicating that wastewater effluents had the potential to cause adverse effects on Z. platypus inhabiting receiving stream.
KeywordsBiomarker Effluent Fish Histology Metal Oxidative stress
This work was supported by a Korea University Grant and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (no. NRF-2016R1A2B4016299).
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