Herbicide Toxicity to Soybean–Rhizobium Symbiosis as Affected by Soil pH

  • A. Aliverdi
  • G. Ahmadvand


The current study examined whether soil pH could influence the toxicity of herbicides to soybean–rhizobium symbiosis. This can be useful for farmers to minimize the toxicity of them to crop–rhizobium symbiosis via applying their reduced doses. The toxicity of bentazon, metribuzin, and trifluralin to soybean–rhizobium symbiosis was investigated in pH 6.4, 7.2, and 8 soils. Seed inoculation decreased shoot:root (S:R) ratio but increased height, shoot dry weight (SDW), root dry weight (RDW), shoot nitrogen content (SNC), root nitrogen content (RNC), and nitrogen fixation effectiveness (NFE) in the pH 7.2 soil without herbicide application. All herbicides decreased NFE in all soil pH regimes except metribuzin in the pH 6.4 soil. Unlike trifluralin, the toxicity of bentazon and metribuzin to soybean–rhizobium symbiosis was influenced by the soil pH. It can be concluded that soil acidification and alkalization, which can rapidly occur in agroecosystems, can decrease and increase the toxicity of bentazon and metribuzin to soybean–rhizobium symbiosis, respectively.


Bradyrhizobium japonicum Lime Nitrogen fixation Nodulation Sulfur 



The authors acknowledge the Nature Bio-Technology Company who provided the soybean inoculant. Appreciation is extended to Somayeh Ebrahimpoor Faraji, Zeineb Mirjani, and Zahra Ahmadi Joyandeh who provided invaluable assistance to conduct this study.


  1. AOAC (2016) Official methods of analysis of AOAC international, 20th edn. Latimer GW (ed). AOAC International, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  2. Arruda JS, Lopes NF, Moura AB (2001) Behavior of Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains under different herbicide concentrations. Planta Daninha 19:111–117. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Banks ML, Kennedy AC, Kremer RJ, Eivazi F (2014) Soil microbial community response to surfactants and herbicides in two soils. Appl Soil Ecol 74:12–20. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Belda KD (2014) Effect of liming on root nodulation and grain yield of soybean at Bako agricultural research center, Western Ethiopia. Dissertation. Haramaya University, EthiopiaGoogle Scholar
  5. Bohm GMB, Alves BJR, Urquiaga S, Boddey RM, Xavier GR, Hax F, Rombaldi CV (2009) Glyphosate- and imazethapyr-induced effects on yield, nodule mass and biological nitrogen fixation in field-grown glyphosate-resistant soybean. Soil Biol Biochem 41:420–422. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bolan NS, Adriano DC, Curtin D (2003) Soil acidification and liming interactions with nutrient and heavy metal transformation and bioavailability. Adv Agron 78:215–272. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gonzalez N, Eyherabide JJ, Barcelonna MI, Gaspari A, Sanmartino S (1999) Effect of soil interacting herbicides on soybean nodulation in Balcarce, Argentina. Pesq Agropec Bras 34:1167–1173. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jha BK, Chandra R, Singh R (2014) Influence of post emergence herbicides on weeds, nodulation and yields of soybean and soil properties. Legume Res 37:47–54. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jiang L-X, Jin L-G, Guo Y, Tao B, Qiu L-J (2013) Glyphosate effects on the gene expression of the apical bud in soybean (Glycine max). Biochem Biophys Res Commun 437:544–549. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Khan MS, Zaidi A, Aamil M (2004) Influence of herbicides on chickpea-Mesorhizobium symbiosis. Agronomie 24:123–127. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kremer RJ, Means NE (2009) Glyphosate and glyphosate-resistant crop interactions with rhizosphere microorganisms. Eur J Agron 31:153–161. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lestari P, Van K, Kim MY, Lee S-H (2006) Nodulation and growth of a supernodulating soybean mutant SS2-2 symbiotically associated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum. J AgroBiogen 2:8–15. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Marileo LG, Jorquera MA, Hernández M, Briceño G, de La Luz Mora M, Demanet R, Palma G (2016) Changes in bacterial communities by post-emergent herbicides in an Andisol fertilized with urea as revealed by DGGE. Appl Soil Ecol 101:141–151. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Monaco TJ, Weller SC, Ashton FM (2002) Weed science: principles and practices. Wiley, New York, p 137Google Scholar
  15. Parsa M, Aliverdi A, Hammami H (2013) Effect of the recommended and optimized doses of haloxyfop-P-methyl or imazethapyr on soybean-Bradyrhizobium japonicum symbiosis. Ind Crops Prod 50:197–202. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Parsa M, Aliverdi A, Hammami H (2014) Activity of the recommended and optimized rates of pyridate on chickpea—Mesorhizobium mediterraneum symbiosis. Not Sci Biol 6:92–98. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Primieri S, Costa MD, Stroschein MRD, Stocco P, Santos JCP, Antunes PM (2016) Variability in symbiotic effectiveness of N2 fixing bacteria in Mimosa scabrella. Appl Soil Ecol 102:19–25. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rao AS, Reddy KS (2010) Nutrient management in soybean. In: Singh G (ed) The soybean: botany, production and uses. CABI, London. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Zabalza SG, Ribas-Carboä M, Orcaray L, Igal M, Royuela A (2006) Nitrogen assimilation studies using 15N in soybean plants treated with imazethapyr, an inhibitor of branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis. J Agric Food Chem 54:8818–8823. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Zaidi A, Khan MS, Rizvi PQ (2005) Effect of herbicides on growth, nodulation and nitrogen content of greengram. Agron Sustain Dev 25:497–504. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Zandstra B, Particka M, Masabni J (2004) Guide to tolerance of crops and susceptibility of weeds to herbicides. Michigan State University, Michigan.
  22. Zawoznik MS, Tomaro ML (2005) Effect of chlorimuron-ethyl on Bradyrhizobium japonicum and its symbiosis with soybean. Pest Manag Sci 61:1003–1008. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of AgricultureBu-Ali Sina UniversityHamadanIslamic Republic of Iran

Personalised recommendations