Sperm Morphology and Motility of Bufo raddei Under Long-Term Environmental Heavy Metal Stress
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of environmental heavy metals on sperm morphology and motility of Bufo raddei. We collected B. raddei from Baiyin (BY) and Liujiaxia (LJX); BY is an area heavily polluted by heavy metals, while LJX is a relatively unpolluted area. Significant accumulations of copper, zinc, lead and cadmium were observed in B. raddei from BY, together with relatively smaller sperm size and higher sperm abnormality rate. Unexpectedly, sperm velocity, percentages of sperm motility and viability of B. raddei from BY were significantly higher than those from LJX. Similarly, when sperm was suspended in heavy metal solutions, sperm velocity, percentages of sperm motility and viability significantly increased compared with those suspended in distilled water. These results indicate that environmental heavy metal stress may decrease sperm size, meanwhile enhance sperm motility through increasing the ratio of head length to total sperm length of B. raddei.
KeywordsHeavy metal Bufo raddei Sperm morphology Sperm motility
The present study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No: 31300437) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Nos: lzujbky-2018-kb18 and lzujbky-2017-it49).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Animal studies and experiments were approved and carried out according to Lanzhou University’s Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee guidelines.
- Della TG, Trudeau VL, Gratwicke B, Evans M, Augustine L, Chia H, Bronikowski EJ, Murphy JB, Comizzoli P (2017) Effects of hormonal stimulation on the concentration and quality of excreted spermatozoa in the critically endangered Panamanian golden frog (Atelopus zeteki). Theriogenology 91:27–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gage MJG, Macfarlane CP, Yeates S, Ward RG, Searle JB, Parker GA (2004) Spermatozoal traits and sperm competition in Atlantic salmon: relative sperm velocity is the primary determinant of fertilization success. Curr Biol 14:44–47Google Scholar
- Xu LC, Wang SY, Yang XF, Wang XR (2001) Effects of cadmium on rat sperm motility evaluated with computer assisted sperm analysis. Biomed Environ Sci 14:312–317Google Scholar