Evaluation of the Persistence and Leaching Behaviour of Thiram Fungicide in Soil, Water and Oil Palm Leaves

  • Zainol MaznahEmail author
  • Muhamad Halimah
  • B. Sahid Ismail


The residual levels and persistence of thiram in the soil, water and oil palm seedling leaves were investigated under field conditions. The experimental plots were carried out on a clay loam soil and applied with three treatments namely; manufacturer’s recommended dosage (25.6 g a.i. plot−1), manufacturer’s double recommended dosage (51.2 g a.i. plot−1), and control (water) were applied. Thiram residues were detected in the soil from day 0 to day 3 in the range of 0.22–27.04 mg kg−1. Low concentrations of thiram were observed in the water and leave samples in the range of 0.27–2.52 mg L−1 and 1.34–12.28 mg kg−1, respectively. Results have shown that thiram has a rapid degradation and has less persistence due to climatic factors. These findings suggest that thiram is safe when applied at manufacturer’s recommended dosage on oil palm seedlings due to low residual levels observed in soil and water bodies.


Thiram Persistence Oil palm Nursery Field study 



We wished to express our deepest gratitude and appreciation to the Director-General of MPOB for the authorisation in the publication of this article. We would like to thank the management of RISDA Semaian dan Landskap Sdn. Bhd. (RSSB) for their kindness in granting permission to undertake the experiment at their premises.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zainol Maznah
    • 1
    Email author
  • Muhamad Halimah
    • 1
  • B. Sahid Ismail
    • 2
  1. 1.Analytical and Quality Development Unit, Product Development and Advisory Services DivisionMalaysian Palm Oil BoardKajangMalaysia
  2. 2.School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and TechnologyUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangiMalaysia

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