Heavy Rare Earth Elements Affect Sphaerechinus granularis Sea Urchin Early Life Stages by Multiple Toxicity Endpoints
Heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) were tested for adverse effects to early life stages of the sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis. Embryos were exposed to analytically measured HREE concentrations ranging from 10−7 to 10−5 M. No significant developmental defect (DD) increases were observed in embryos exposed to 10−7 M HREEs, whereas 10−5 M HREEs resulted in significant DD increase up to 96% for HoCl3 versus 14% in controls. Embryos exposed to 10−6 M HREEs showed the highest DD frequency in embryos exposed to 10−6 M DyCl3 and HoCl3. Cytogenetic analysis of HREE-exposed embryos revealed a significant decrease in mitotic activity, with increased mitotic aberrations. When S. granularis sperm were exposed to HREEs, the offspring of sperm exposed to 10−5 M GdCl3 and LuCl3 showed significant DD increases. The results warrant investigations on HREEs in other test systems, and on REE-containing complex mixtures.
KeywordsHeavy rare earth elements Sea urchins Embryotoxicity Cytogenetic damage, offspring damage
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflict of interest in the present study.
- EU-OSHA (2013) Priorities for occupational safety and health research in Europe: (2013–2020). European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. ISBN: 978-92-9240-068-2Google Scholar
- Gambogi J, Cordier DJ (2013) Rare earths. In: Metals and minerals. U.S. Geological Survey. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1072/OFR2013-1072
- Jensen J, Mackintosh AR (1991) Rare earth magnetism. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- Pagano G, Korkina LG, Iaccarino M, De Biase A, Deeva IB, Doronin YK, Guida M, Melluso G, Meriç S, Oral R, Trieff NM, Warnau M (2001) Developmental, cytogenetic and biochemical effects of spiked or environmentally polluted sediments in sea urchin bioassays. In: Garrigues P, Walker CH, Barth H (eds) Biomarkers in marine ecosystems: a practical approach. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 85–129Google Scholar
- Pagano G, Guida M, Siciliano A, Oral R, Koçbaş F, Palumbo A, Castellano I, Migliaccio O, Thomas PJ, Trifuoggi M (2016) Comparative toxicities of selected rare earth elements: sea urchin embryogenesis and fertilization damage with redox and cytogenetic effects. Environ Res 147:453–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pagano G, Guida M, Trifuoggi M, Thomas PJ, Palumbo A, Romano G, Oral R (2017) Sea urchin bioassays in toxicity testing: I. Inorganics, organics, complex mixtures and natural products. Expert Opin Environ Biol 6:1Google Scholar