Testicular Oxidative Stress and Cellular Deformities in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) from River Yamuna in Delhi Region, India
River Yamuna is under constant menace due to pollution levels beyond limit, ensuing chronic poisoning of aquatic biota. Induction of oxidative stress and cellular deformities is a common effect in fish. The present study aimed in assessing impact of environmental pollutants on gonad (testis) of Clarias gariepinus from Wazirabad barrage (entry site) and Okhla barrage (exit site) of river Yamuna in Delhi segment. Antioxidant enzymes assays viz. Super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP); thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay (TBARS) for determining level of lipid peroxidation and histology for analysis of degenerative changes were employed as biomarkers. The results depicted signs of environmental contamination, hallmarked by significant increase (p < 0.001) in TBARs level (µmol/g wet tissue); significant decrease (p < 0.001) in SOD, CAT (U/mg protein) and FRAP value (U/mg tissue) in response to greater pollution at Okhla barrage as compared to Wazirabad barrage. Degenerative changes viz. unorganized seminiferous tubules, extensive vacuolization in germ cells, inflammatory lesions, greater vacant spaces and condensation of tubular cells prevailed in 75%, 85%, 80%, 80%, and 65% specimens respectively from Okhla barrage. Hence, the selected biomarkers highlighted the existence of greater prooxidative compounds at the exit site resulting in stressful condition for fish in river basin.
KeywordsClarias gariepinus Yamuna Bio-markers Testis Oxidative stress Anti-oxidants
The authors acknowledge the financial assistance provided by University Grant Commission, New Delhi. The authors are thankful to the Chairperson, Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, India, for providing laboratory and library facilities.
- Ameur WB, Lapuente J, Megdiche Y, Barhoumi B, Trabelsi S, Camps L, Serret J, López DR, Linares JG, Driss MR, Borràs M (2012) Oxidative stress, genotoxicity and histopathology biomarker responses in mullet (Mugil cephalus) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) liver from Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia). Mar Pollut Bull 64(2):241–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Borkovic SS, Saponjic JS, Pavlovic SZ, Blagojevic DP, Milosevic SM et al (2005) The activity of antioxidant defence enzymes in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Adriatic Sea. Comp Biochem Physiol 141(4):366–374Google Scholar
- Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) (2006) Report on water quality status of yamuna river 1999–2005Google Scholar
- Fridovich I (1989) Superoxide dismutases. An adaptation to a paramagnetic gas. J Biol Chem 264(14):7761–7764Google Scholar
- Huang GJ, Chen HJ, Chang YS, Sheu MJ, Lin YH (2007) Recombinant sporamin and its synthesized peptides with antioxidant activities in vitro. Bot Stud 48:133–140Google Scholar
- Lal KK, Singh RK, Mohindra V, Singh B, Ponniah AG (2003) Genetic make up of exotic catfish Clarias gariepinus in India. Asian Fish Sci 16(3–4):229–234Google Scholar
- Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193:265–275Google Scholar
- Malik D, Singh S, Thakur J, Singh RK, Kaur A, Nijhawan S (2014) Heavy metal pollution of the Yamuna river: an introspection. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 3(10):856–863Google Scholar
- Pearse AGE (1968) Histochemistry: theoritical and applied. Churchill, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Sen I, Shandil A, Shrivastava VS (2011) Study for determination of heavy metals in fish species of the river Yamuna (Delhi) by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Adv Appl Sci Res 2(2):161–166Google Scholar
- Storey KB (1996) Oxidative stress: animal adaptations in nature. Braz J Med Biol Res 29(12):1715–1733Google Scholar
- Vlahogianni T, Dassenakis M, Scoullos MJ, Valavanidis A (2007) Integrated use of biomarkers (superoxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidation) in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis for assessing heavy metals’ pollution in coastal areas from the Saronikos Gulf of Greece. Mar Pollut Bull 54(9):1361–1371CrossRefGoogle Scholar