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Identifying the Pollution Characteristics of Atmospheric Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Associated with Functional Districts in Ningbo, China

  • Lei Tong
  • Cheng-Hui Peng
  • Zhong-Wen Huang
  • Jing-Jing Zhang
  • Xiao-Rong Dai
  • Hang XiaoEmail author
  • Neng-Bin Xu
  • Jun He
Article

Abstract

Duplicate polyurethane foam based passive air samplers (PUF-PAS) were deployed at seven sites in Ningbo from November 1, 2014 to October 31, 2015 and were used to analyze 15 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Higher benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalent concentrations were observed in the industrial areas during wintertime. Correspondence analysis (CA) was used to characterize the PAH congener profiles associated with each functional district and their temporal variations. It showed that different PAH composition profiles and seasonal variations were observed in mountain, rural area and residential areas; and different industrial layouts also led to different properties of PAH congener emissions. Higher levels of PAHs were observed around oil refinery in summer and at mountainous areas in winter, which might be attributed to the evaporation of petroleum and the impact of local biomass burning. This study also demonstrated that the factors influencing the representativeness of a site could be more clearly understood using PUF-PAS and CA analysis.

Keywords

PAHs Functional districts Pollution characteristics 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Crossing-Group Project of the Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health of IUECAS (Grant No. KLUEH-C-201803).

Supplementary material

128_2018_2535_MOESM1_ESM.docx (63 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 62 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban EnvironmentChinese Academy of SciencesXiamenChina
  2. 2.Key Lab of Urban Environmental Processes and Pollution Control, Ningbo Urban Environment Observation and Research Station-NUEORSChinese Academy of SciencesNingboChina
  3. 3.3Environment Monitoring Center of NingboNingboChina
  4. 4.University of Nottingham Ningbo ChinaNingboChina

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