Detection and Sizing of Ti-Containing Particles in Recreational Waters Using Single Particle ICP-MS
Single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) was used to detect Ti-containing particles in heavily-used bathing areas of a river (Salt River) and five swimming pools. Ti-containing particle concentrations in swimming pools ranged from 2.8 × 103 to 4.4 × 103 particles/mL and were an order of magnitude lower than those detected in the Salt River. Measurements from the Salt River showed an 80% increase in Ti-containing particle concentration over baseline concentration during peak recreational activity (at 16:00 h) in the river. Cloud point extraction followed by transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed presence of aggregated TiO2 particles in river samples, showing morphological similarity to particles present in an over-the-counter sunscreen product. The maximum particle mass concentration detected in a sample from the Salt River (659 ng/L) is only slightly lower than the predicted no effect concentration for TiO2 to aquatic organisms (< 1 μg/L).
KeywordsTitanium dioxide Nanoparticles Single particle inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) Recreational waters Exposure River
This study was partially funded by the National Science Foundation (CBET 0847710) and the US Environmental Protection Agency through the STAR program (RD83558001). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the NSF and USEPA. We gratefully acknowledge the use of facilities with the LeRoy Eyring Center for Solid State Science at Arizona State University. We would like to thank Dr. Heather Tugaoen for her help with sampling and Dr. Jared Schoepf for his help with TEM.
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