The Effects of Sertraline on Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas) Growth and Steroidogenesis
- 225 Downloads
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the steroidogenic effects of sertraline, a popular selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on larval fathead minnow (FHM; Pimephales promelas) and adult FHM. Larvae were exposed to 0.1, 1, and 10 µg/L sertraline for 28 days and analyzed for differential mRNA expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD), 20β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20β-HSD), aromatase (CYP19a), nuclear thyroid receptor alpha (TRα), and normalized to RP-L8. Adult FHM were exposed to 3 or 10 µg/L sertraline for 7 days and analyzed for differential expression of the same genes with the addition of thyroid receptor beta (TRβ). Larval FHM exposed to 0.1 μg/L had a significant upregulation of both 20β-HSD and TRα while adult FHM exposed to 10 µg/L had a significant upregulation of 11β-HSD expression in brain tissue. The significance of these findings with respect to survival, growth and reproduction are currently unknown, but represent areas for future research.
KeywordsPharmaceuticals Fathead minnow Endocrine disruption
We would like to thank William Baylor Steele IV for his tremendous technical assistance and Hagar Mohamed for supplying adult FHM brain and ovary tissue.
- Brochet DM, Martin P, Soubrié P, Simon P (1987) Triiodothyronine potentiation of antidepressant-induced reversal of learned helplessness in rats. Psychiatry Res 21(3):267–275. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3628611
- De Morais A, Traple F (2010) (Section Editor: M. G. Zeier) Hypokalaemia and the thyroid—is there a link? 3:89–90. doi: 10.1093/ndtplus/sfp131
- EPA (2002) Methods for measuring the acute toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to freshwater and marine organisms, Fifth. EPA Office of Water, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Garcia-Reyero N, Ekman DR, Habib T, Villeneuve DL, Collette TW, Bencic DC, Perkins EJ (2014) Integrated approach to explore the mechanisms of aromatase inhibition and recovery in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Gen Comp Endocrinol 203:193–202. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2014.03.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Matsuda M, Imaoka T, Vomachka AJ, Gudelsky GA, Hou Z, Mistry M, Horseman ND (2004) Serotonin regulates mammary gland development via an autocrine-paracrine loop. Dev Cell 6(2):193–203. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14960274
- Painter MM, Buerkley MA, Julius ML, Vajda AM, Norris DO, Barber LB, Schoenfuss H (2009) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment antidepressants at environmentally relevant concentrations affect predator avoidance behavior of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Environ Toxicol Chem 28(12):2677–2684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schultz MM, Furlong ET, Kolpin DW, Werner SL, Schoenfuss HL, Barber LB, Vajda AM (2010) Antidepressant pharmaceuticals in two U.S. effluent-impacted streams: occurrence and fate in water and sediment, and selective uptake in fish neural tissue. Environ Sci Technol 44(6):1918–1925. doi: 10.1021/es9022706 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Taylor D, Senac T (2014) Human pharmaceutical products in the environment—the “problem” in perspective. Chemosphere 1–5. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.01.011
- Valenti TW, Gould GG, Berninger JP, Connors KA, Keele NB, Prosser KN, Brooks BW (2012) Human therapeutic plasma levels of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) sertraline decrease serotonin reuptake transporter binding and shelter-seeking behavior in adult male fathead minnows. Environ Sci Technol 46(4):2427–2435. doi: 10.1021/es204164b CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Villeneuve DL, Knoebl I, Kahl MD, Jensen KM, Hammermeister DE, Greene KJ, Ankley GT (2006) Relationship between brain and ovary aromatase activity and isoform-specific aromatase mRNA expression in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Aquat Toxicol 76:353–368. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2005.10.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Weinberger J, Klaper R (2014) Environmental concentrations of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine impact specific behaviors involved in reproduction, feeding and predator avoidance in the fish Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow). Aquat Toxicol 151:77–83. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2013.10.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar