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Toxicity Appraisal of Untreated Dyeing Industry Wastewater Based on Chemical Characterization and Short Term Bioassays

Abstract

Characterizing wastewaters only on a chemical basis may be insufficient owing to their complex nature. The purpose of this study was to assess toxicity of textile dyeing wastewater based on analytical techniques and short term toxicity based bioassays. In this study, screening of the fractionated wastewater through GC–MS showed the presence of phenols, phthalic acid derivatives and chlorpyrifos. Metal analysis revealed that chromium, arsenic and mercury were present in amounts higher than the wastewater discharge limits. Textile dyeing wastewater was found to be highly mutagenic in the Ames test. DNA damage in sheep lymphocytes decreased linearly with an increase in the dilution of wastewater. MTT assay showed that 8.3 percent v/v wastewater decreased cell survival percentage to 50 %. It can be concluded from this study that short term toxicity tests such as Ames test, in vitro comet assay, and cytotoxicity assays may serve as useful indicators of wastewater pollution along with their organic and inorganic chemical characterizations.

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Acknowledgements

The authors wish to acknowledge the Chairman, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dr. Ovais Omer for his kind support throughout this study.

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Correspondence to Muhammad Furqan Akhtar.

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Akhtar, M.F., Ashraf, M., Javeed, A. et al. Toxicity Appraisal of Untreated Dyeing Industry Wastewater Based on Chemical Characterization and Short Term Bioassays. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 96, 502–507 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-016-1759-x

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Keywords

  • Industrial wastewater
  • Genotoxicity
  • Mutagenicity
  • Cytotoxicity
  • Heavy metals