Effects of Hypoxia on the Physiology of Zebrafish (Danio rerio): Initial Responses, Acclimation and Recovery
- 377 Downloads
Hypoxia often occurs in aquatic environments as dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration decrease to a level where it is detrimental to aquatic organisms. To investigate the effects of hypoxia on the physiology of zebrafishes (Danio rerio), the organisms were kept at normoxic conditions (DO: 8 ± 0.3 mg L−1: control group) or were subjected to mild (DO: 3 ± 0.3 mg L−1) or severe hypoxia (DO: 1 ± 0.2 mg L−1) for 48 h and a subsequent restoration of oxygen concentrations (DO: 8 ± 0.3 mg L−1) for another 96 h at 25°C. We found that the enzyme activities show different initial responses, acclimation and recovery to severe hypoxia relative to normoxic conditions, but no significant difference was observed between normoxic conditions and mild hypoxia. The results suggest that zebrafishes can acclimate to the mild hypoxia (3 mg L−1) quickly but oxidative damage would occur when DO decreased below 1 mg L−1. Our findings could be useful for water resource managers to set protection limits of DO for aquatic organisms.
KeywordsHypoxia Dissolved oxygen Antioxidant Respiratory enzyme Resting metabolic Zebrafish
We thank the two anonymous reviewers for highly professional critical analysis of the manuscript that helped substantially improve the work. This research was funded by the Major Science and Technology Program for Water Pollution Control and Treatment (2012ZX07501-003) and Tianjin Research Program of Application Foundation and Advanced Technology (15JCYBJC22800).
- Barrionuevo WR, Burggren WW (1999) O2 consumption and heart rate in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio): influence of temperature and ambient O2. Am J Physiol 276(2 Pt 2):R505–R513Google Scholar
- Claiborne A (1985) Catalase activity. In: Greenwald RA (ed) CRC handbook of methods in oxygen radical research. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
- Dalla VJ, Van den Thillart G, Cattani O, Cortesi P (1998) Behavioural responses and biochemical correlates in Solea solea to gradual hypoxic exposure. Can J Zool 76:108–2113Google Scholar
- Lushchak VI, Lushchak LP, Mota AA, Hermes-Lima M (2001) Oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses in goldfish Carassius auratus during anoxia and reoxygenation. Am J Physiol 280:R100–R107Google Scholar
- Muggeo VMR (2008) Segmented: an R package to fit regression models with broken-line relationships. R News 8:20–25Google Scholar
- Olsvik PA, Kristensen T, Waagb R, Rosseland BO, Tollefsen KE, Baeverfjord G, Berntssen MH (2005) mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GSH-Px) and lipid peroxidative stress in liver of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to hyperoxic water during smoltification. Comp Biochem Physiol C 141:314–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- US Environmental Protection Agency (1986) Ambient water quality criteria for dissolved oxygen. EPA 440/5-86-003. USEPA, Criteria and Standards Division, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar