Olfactory Sampling Recovery Following Sublethal Copper Exposure in the Rusty Crayfish, Orconectes rusticus
- 247 Downloads
Increasing levels of anthropogenic chemicals within an aquatic ecosystem may inhibit animals from extracting information from chemical signals. We investigated whether antennular flicking, a behavioral mechanism involved in chemically-mediated behaviors of the rusty crayfish, Orconectes rusticus, was altered following a sublethal copper exposure (450 µg/L). Crayfish exposed to copper exhibited lower flicking rates than control crayfish and were significantly less successful in their ability to orient to a food odor. Copper was then eliminated from the housing tanks, providing a recovery period. Groups of crayfish were assayed for antennular flicking rates and orientation success three times over the course of the 21 day recovery period. Crayfish demonstrated significant increases in rates of successful localization of odors and antennular flicking during this portion of the experiment. These results indicate that the mechanism by which copper impairs chemoreception in the rusty crayfish is reversible if elevated levels of copper concentrations are eliminated from aquatic ecosystems contaminated by runoff from agricultural or aquacultural chemicals.
KeywordsOlfactory sampling recovery Sublethal toxicity Copper Orconectes rusticus Crayfish
We would like to thank members of the Laboratory for Sensory Ecology for their aid in manuscript review and Dr. Rachelle M. Belanger of the University of Detroit Mercy for the use of analytical software. This research was supported by the Larry and Linda Oman Graduate Research in Ecology and Environmental Biology Scholarship and the Mary Ellen Mazey Women In Science Fellowship awarded to SE Lahman.
- Holdich DM (2002) Biology of freshwater crayfish. Blackwell Science, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- Julliard AK, Saucier D, Astic L (1993) Effects of chronic low-level copper exposure on ultrastructure of the olfactory system in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Histol Histopathol 8:655–672Google Scholar
- Levene H (1960) Robust tests for the equality of variances. In: Olkin I (ed) Contributions to probability and statistics: essays in honor of Harold Hotelling. Stanford University Press, Palo Alto, pp 278–292Google Scholar
- Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) (2010) Document No. DSW/EAS, 2010-4-4/Division of Surface WaterGoogle Scholar
- Olsén KH (2011) Effects of pollutants on olfactory mediated behaviors in fish and crustaceans. In: Breithaupt T, Thiel M (eds) Chemical communication in crustaceans. Springer, LLC, New York, pp 507–528Google Scholar
- Sutterlin AM (1974) Pollutants and the chemical senses of aquatic animals: perspective and review. Chem Senses Flavor 1:167–178Google Scholar
- Taylor RM, Watson GD, Alikhan MA (1995) Comparative sub-lethal and lethal acute toxicity of copper to the freshwater crayfish, Cambarus robustus (Cambaridae, Decapoda, Crustacea) from an acidic metal-contaminated lake and a circumneutral uncontaminated stream. Water Res 29(2):401–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zar J (1984) Biostatistical analysis, 2nd edn. Prentice Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar