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Effects of Metal Pollution on Sediments in a Highly Saline Aquatic Ecosystem: Case of the Moknine Continental Sebkha (Eastern Tunisia)

  • Ahmed Wali
  • Atsushi Kawachi
  • Mohamed Seddik Mahmoud Bougi
  • Hamed Ben Dhia
  • Hiroko Isoda
  • Maki Tsujimura
  • Mohamed KsibiEmail author
Article

Abstract

Potential contamination of the sediments in the Sebkha of Moknine (Tunisia) ecosystem was assessed by means of enrichment factors (EFs) estimated against reference sediment located ≈70 km away from the Sebkha. The use of EFs is recommended as a reliable method for heavy metal contamination assessment, provided that (1) element contents are corrected following a careful normalization procedure, and (2) the reference sediment is unaffected by anthropogenic alterations. The degree of contamination was assessed by the modified contamination degree approach. The obtained results indicated that surface sediments were enriched up to 22.9, 13.2, 5.46 and 3.19 times with Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn, respectively. Lower enrichment factors for Ni and Co suggested that anthropogenic sources were less important for these metals. The modified degree of contamination showed that the sediments in the Sebkha of Moknine have suffered significant systematic heavy metal contamination following catchment urbanization and industrialization .

Keywords

Sebkha of Moknine Sediment degradation Heavy metals Anthropogenic origin 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was partially supported by the JST/JICA, SATREPS project.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed Wali
    • 1
  • Atsushi Kawachi
    • 2
  • Mohamed Seddik Mahmoud Bougi
    • 1
  • Hamed Ben Dhia
    • 1
  • Hiroko Isoda
    • 2
  • Maki Tsujimura
    • 2
  • Mohamed Ksibi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Water, Energy and Environment, National School of Engineers of Sfax (ENIS)University of SfaxSfaxTunisia
  2. 2.Graduate School of Life and Environmental SciencesUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan

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