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The Effect of Cypermethrin, Chlorpyrifos, and Glyphosate Active Ingredients and Formulations on Daphnia magna (Straus)

  • Pablo M. Demetrio
  • Carlos Bonetto
  • Alicia E. Ronco
Article

Abstract

Acute effects of active ingredients (a.i.) and formulations (F) of widely used pesticides were assessed by means of the Daphnia magna toxicity test. Studied pesticides were the insecticides, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos, and the herbicide, glyphosate. Results were analyzed and compared according to statistical endpoints (LCx) and log-probit regressions of toxicity data. The potency of acute toxicity followed the order: chlorpyrifos F > chlorpyrifos a.i. > cypermethrin F > cypermethrin a.i. ≫ glyphosate F > glyphosate a.i. Three to five orders of magnitude differences between the toxicity (µg/L to mg/L) of insecticides and the herbicide were observed. A pairwise comparison between a.i. and F indicated that all formulations were more potent. Additionally, for the case of glyphosate, evidence suggests that the adjuvant contributes to formulation toxicity rather than to the enhancement of a.i. potency.

Keywords

Glyphosate Cypermethrin Chlorpyrifos Toxicity Daphnia 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Authors acknowledge Dr. D. Marino and G. Bulus Rossini for support in analytical determinations and toxicity testing, L. Castellvi for editorial suggestions, and Gleba S.A. for providing tested pesticides. We thank anonymous reviewers for helpful comments. Funds for this study were from PICT2010 0891, Argentinean Ministry of Science and Technology.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pablo M. Demetrio
    • 1
  • Carlos Bonetto
    • 2
  • Alicia E. Ronco
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Centro de Investigaciones del Medio AmbienteUniversidad Nacional de La Plata, CONICETLa PlataArgentina
  2. 2.Instituto de Limnología Dr. Raúl A RingueletUniversidad Nacional de La Plata, CONICETLa PlataArgentina

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