Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Photochemical Performance of Thylakoid Membrane in Lead-Treated Nymphoides peltatum

  • 118 Accesses

  • 1 Citations


Photochemical responses in the thylakoid membrane of Nymphoides peltatum to increasing lead (Pb) concentrations were investigated after 5 days of exposure. Pb accumulation increased in a concentration-dependent manner, with a maximum of 118.44 μg g−1 at 100 μM. Nutrients (Zn, Mg, Mo, Ca, Fe and Mn), ATPase activity and pigment generally increased progressively at Pb concentrations of 12.5 and 25 μM, but then declined at concentrations of 50 and 100 μM. Moreover, Pb stress induced an increase in chlorophyll (Chl) a/b ratio in a different extent. No outstanding changes were observed in several Chl a fluorescence parameters at low Pb concentrations (12.5 and 25 μM), while significant changes (p < 0.05) were observed in these parameters at higher concentrations. The alterations of nutrients, ATPase activity and pigment content were associated with disturbances in the thylakoid membrane, indicated by the quenching of Chl a fluorescence. These results were indicative of a disarray in photochemical activities exerted by Pb phytotoxicity.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1


  1. Arnon DI (1949) Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts: polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiol 24:1–15

  2. Arunakumara KKIU, Zhang XC (2009) Effects of heavy metals (Pb2+ and Cd2+) on the ultrastructure, growth and pigment contents of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803*. Chin J Oceanol Limnol 27:383–388

  3. Baker NR, Rosenqvist E (2004) Applications of chlorophyll fluorescence can improve crop production strategies: an examination of future possibilities. J Exp Bot 55:1607–1621

  4. Biswal UC, Biswal B, Raval MK (2003) Chloroplasts biogenesis: from proplastid to gerentoplast. Springer, Dordrecht

  5. Bondada BR, Oosterhuis DM (1998) Decline in photosynthesis as related to alterations in chloroplast ultrastructure of a cotton leaf during ontogeny. Photosynthetica 35:467–471

  6. Burzyński M, Klobus G (2004) Changes of photosynthetic parameters in cucumber leaves under Cu, Cd, and Pb stress. Photosynthetica 42:505–510

  7. Chen GX, Liu SH, Zhang CJ, Lu CG (2004) Effects of water stress on photosynthetic characteristics in chloroplast of functional leaves of super high-yield hybrid rice (Oryza sativa). Photosynthetica 42:573–578

  8. Dunahay TG, Staehelin LA, Serbert M (1984) Structural, biochemical and biophysical characterization of four oxygen evolving photosystem preparations from spinach. Biochim Biophys Acta 764:1179–1193

  9. Fang Z, Bouwkamp JC, Solomos T (1998) Chlorophyllase activities and chlorophyll degradation during leaf senescence in non-yellowing mutant and wild type of Phaseolus vulgaris L. J Exp Bot 49:503–510

  10. Ferreira MJ, Goncalves JFC, Ferraz JBS (2009) Photosynthetic parameters of young Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H. B.) plants subjected to fertilization in a degraded area in Central Amazonia. Photosynthetica 47:616–620

  11. Gross J, Stein RJ, Fett-Neto AG, Fett JP (2003) Iron homeostasis related genes in rice. Genet Mol Biol 26:477–497

  12. Huang GY, Wang YS (2010) Physiological and biochemical responses in the leaves of two mangrove plant seedlings (Kandelia candel and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza) exposed to multiple heavy metals. J Hazard Mater 182:848–854

  13. Joshi MK, Mohanty P (2004) Chlorophyll a fluorescence as a probe of heavy metal ion toxicity in plants. In: Papageorgiou GC, Govindjee PG (eds) Chlorophyll a fluorescence: a signature of photosynthesis. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 637–661

  14. Krause GH, Weis E (1991) Chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis: the basics. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 42:313–349

  15. Krupa Z, Baszyński T (1995) Some aspects of heavy metals toxicity towards photosynthetic apparatus-direct and indirect effects on light and dark reactions. Acta Physiol Plant 17:177–190

  16. Küpper H, Lombi E, Zhao FJ, Wieshammer G, McGrath SP (2001) Cellular compartmentation of nickel in the hyperaccumulators Alyssum lesbiacum, Alyssum bertolonii and Thlaspi goesingense. J Exp Bot 52:2291–2300

  17. Lavid N, Schwartz A, Lewinsohn E, Tel-Or E (2001) Phenols and phenol oxidases are involved in cadmium accumulation in the water plants Nymphoides peltata (Menyanthaceae) and Nymphaeae (Nymphaeaceae). Planta 214:189–195

  18. Liu P, Yang YS, Xu GD, Fang YH, Yang YA, Kalin RM (2005) The effect of molybdenum and boron in soil on the growth and photosynthesis of three soybean varieties. Plant Soil Environ 51:197–205

  19. Mallakin A, Babu TS, Dixon DG, Greenberg BM (2002) Sites of toxicity of specific photooxidation products of anthracene to higher plants: inhibition of photosynthetic activity and electron transport in Lemna gibba L. G-3 (Duckweed). Environ Toxicol 17:462–471

  20. Maxwell K, Johnson GN (2000) Chlorophyll fluorescence—a practical guide. J Exp Bot 51:659–668

  21. Monnet F, Vaillant N, Vernay P, Coudret A, Sallanon H, Hitmi A (2001) Relationship between PSII activity, CO2 fixation, and Zn, Mn, and Mg contents of Lolium perene under zinc stress. J Plant Physiol 158:1137–1144

  22. Påhlsson AB (1989) Toxicity of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb) to vascular plants. Water Air Soil Pollut 47:287–319

  23. Qu CX, Gong XL, Liu C, Hong MM, Wang L, Hong FS (2012) Effects of manganese deficiency and added cerium photochemical efficiency of maize chloroplasts. Biol Trace Elem Res 146:94–100

  24. Ralph PJ, Burchett MD (1998) Photosynthetic response of Halophila ovalis to heavy metal stress. Environ Pollut 103:91–101

  25. Sarvari E, Gaspar L, Fodor F, Cseh E, Kropfl K, Varga A, Baron M (2002) Comparison of the effects of Pb treatment on thylakoid development in poplar and cucumber plants. Acta Biol Szeged 46:163–165

  26. Scheumann V, Schoch S, Rüdiger W (1999) Chlorophyll b reduction during senescence of barley seedlings. Planta 209:364–370

  27. Sharma P, Dubey RS (2005) Lead toxicity in plants. Braz J Plant Physiol 17:35–52

  28. Siedlecka A, Krupa Z (1999) Cd/Fe interaction in higher plants—its consequences for the photosynthetic apparatus. Photosynthetica 36:321–331

  29. Stiborová M, Hromádková R, Leblová S (1986) Effects of ions of heavy metals on the photosynthetic characteristics of maize (Zea maize). Biol Plant 4:1221–1228

  30. Subhan D, Murthy SDS (2001) Senescence retarding effect of metal ions: pigment and protein contents and photochemical activities of detached primary leaves of wheat. Photosynthetica 39:53–58

  31. Thomas H, Ougham H, Canter P, Donnison I (2002) What stay-green mutants tell us about nitrogen remobilization in leaf senescence. J Exp Bot 53:801–808

  32. Wang C, Ma XL, Hui Z, Wang W (2008) Glycine betaine improves thylakoid membrane function of tobacco leaves under low-temperature stress. Photosynthetica 46:400–409

  33. Xu QS, Hu JZ, Xie KB, Yang HY, Du KH, Shi GX (2010) Accumulation and acute toxicity of silver in Potamogeton crispus L. J Hazard Mater 173:186–193

  34. Zenk MH (1996) Heavy metal detoxification in higher plants: a review. Gene 179:21–30

  35. Zhao J, Shi GX, Yuan QH (2008) Polyamines content and physiological and biochemical responses to ladder concentration of nickel stress in Hydrocharis dubia (Bl.) Backer leaves. Biometals 21:665–674

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Guoxin Shi.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Qiao, X., Shi, G., Zheng, Z. et al. Photochemical Performance of Thylakoid Membrane in Lead-Treated Nymphoides peltatum . Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 93, 251–255 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-014-1300-z

Download citation


  • Lead
  • Nymphoides peltatum
  • Thylakoid membrane
  • Nutrients elements
  • Fluorescence