Advertisement

Determination and Source Identification of Polycyclic Aromatics Hydrocarbons in Karaj River, Iran

  • Hamid Karyab
  • Simin Nasseri
  • Reza Ahmadkhaniha
  • Noushin Rastkari
  • Amir Hosein Mahvi
  • Ramin Nabizadeh
  • Masud Yunesian
Article

Abstract

Sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in six stations in Karaj River, which is the main resource of drinking water in Tehran. The single PAHs concentrations ranged from not detected to 2,327.8 ng L−1, with a mean value of 31.5 ng L−1. The total PAHs concentrations ranged from 25.6, in the spring, to 4,040.3 ng L−1, in the summer. PAHs concentrations in different sampling stations were similar (p = 0.33–0.99), but strong relationships were detected between seasonal variations and total PAHs, BaP equivalent and carcinogen PAHs concentration (p = 0.010–0.037). Results showed that carcinogen PAHs comprised 7 %–92 % of detected PAHs in different sampling stations. The concentration of benzo(a)pyrene, as an indicator, was lower than the permissible limit of the World Health Organization; however, in some samples, carcinogen PAHs concentrations were higher than the permissible limits of the European Union and USA Environmental Protection Agency regulations for drinking water.

Keywords

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Drinking water resources 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was part of a PhD dissertation supported by Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Grant No. 90-02-27-14151).

References

  1. Abdollahi A (2013) Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in wetland and river waters. Asian J Chem 25:4994–4996Google Scholar
  2. Badawy MI, Emababy MA (2010) Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking water in Egypt. Desalination 251:34–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brum DM, Netto ADP (2009) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Tripuí River, Ouro Preto, MG. Brazil. j hazard mater 165:447–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cheney MA, Liu J, Amei A, Zhao X, Joo SW, Qian S (2009) A comparative study on the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Anodonta californiensis. Environ Pollut 157:601–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Conde FJ, Ayala JH, Afonso AM, Gonzalez V (2005) Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of agricultural and sylvicultural debris. Atmos Environ 39:6654–6663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Guo W, He M, Yang Z, Lin C, Quan X, Wang H (2007) Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment from Daliao River watershed, China. Chemosphere 68:93–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. ISIRI (2010) Drinking water -Physical and chemical specifications, 1053, 5th.revision. Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. Available via DIALOG. http://www.std.isiri.org/EN/index.html
  8. Lei L, Khodadoust AP, Suidan MT, Tabak HH (2005) Biodegradation of sediment-bound PAHs in field-contaminated sediment. Water Res 39:349–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Li J, Shang X, Zhao Z, Tanguay RL, Dong Q, Huang C (2010) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, sediment, soil, and plants of the Aojiang River waterway in Wenzhou, China. J Hazard Mater 173:75–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lorenzi D, Entwistle JA, Cave M, Dean JR (2011) Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban street dust: implications for human health. Chemosphere 83:970–977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mackay D, Shiu WY, Ma KC, Lee SC (2006) Handbook of Environmental Physical-Chemical Properties and Environmental Fate for Organic Chemicals, 2nd edn. CRC press, Taylor and Francis groupGoogle Scholar
  12. Manoli E, Samara C, Konstantinou I, Albanis T (2000) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the bulk precipitation and surface waters of Northern Greece. Chemosphere 41:1845–1855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Martins CC, Bícego MC, Mahiques MM, Figueira RC, Tessler MG, Montone RC (2011) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Southeastern Brazil): sources and depositional history. Mar Pollut Bull 63:452–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ngabe B, Bidleman TF, Scott GI (2000) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in storm runoff from urban and coastal South Carolina. Sci Total Environ 255:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ollivon D, Blanchoud H, Motelay-Massei A, Garban B (2002) Atmospheric deposition of PAHs to an urban site, Paris, France. Atmos Environ 36:2891–2900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Reynaud S, Deschaux P (2006) The effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the immune system of fish: a review. Aquat Toxicol 77:229–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ribeiro CAO, Vollaire Y, Sanchez-Chardi A, Roche H (2005) Bioaccumulation and the effects of organochlorine pesticides, PAH and heavy metals in the Eel (Anguilla anguilla) at the Camargue Nature Reserve, France. Aquat Toxicol 74:53–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Saleh A, Yamini Y, Faraji M, Rezaee M, Ghambarian M (2009) Ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction method based on applying low density organic solvents followed by gas chromatography analysis for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples. J Chromatogr A 1216:6673–6679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Wang XT, Chu SG, Ma LL, Sun YZ, Li XH, Xu XB (2004) Contamination of priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water from guanting reservoir and the Yongding River, China. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 72:194–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Wei Y, Han IK, Hu M, Shao M, Zhang JJ, Tang X (2010) Personal exposure to particulate PAHs and anthraquinone and oxidative DNA damages in humans. Chemosphere 81:1280–1285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. WHO (2003) PHAs in Drinking-water, Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality.Available via DIALOG. www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/polyaromahydrocarbons
  22. WHO (2011) Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, fourth edition, World Health Organization. Available via DIALOG. www.whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241548151_eng
  23. Zhang Z, Huang J, Yu G, Hong H (2004) Occurrence of PAHs, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in the Tonghui River of Beijing, China. Environ Pollut 130:249–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Zhang S, Zhang Q, Darisaw S, Ehie O, Wang G (2007) Simultaneous quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in Mississippi river water, in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Chemosphere 66:1057–1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Zhang Y, Lu Y, Xu J, Wu T, Zhao W (2011) Spatial Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Lake Taihu, China. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 87:80–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zhang L, Dong L, Ren L, Shi S, Zhou L, Zhang T, Huang Y (2012) Concentration and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalic acid esters in the surface water of the Yangtze River Delta, China. J Environ Sci-CHINA 24:335–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hamid Karyab
    • 1
    • 3
  • Simin Nasseri
    • 2
    • 3
  • Reza Ahmadkhaniha
    • 4
  • Noushin Rastkari
    • 2
    • 5
  • Amir Hosein Mahvi
    • 2
  • Ramin Nabizadeh
    • 2
  • Masud Yunesian
    • 2
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Health FacultyQazvin University of Medical SciencesQazvinIran
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Center for Water Quality Research, Institute for Environmental ResearchTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of Human Ecology, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  5. 5.Center for Air Pollution Research, Institute for Environmental ResearchTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

Personalised recommendations