Effects of Five Antifouling Biocides on Settlement and Growth of Zoospores from the Marine Macroalga Ulva lactuca L.
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Antifouling biocides are found in the marine ecosystem were they can affect non-target organisms. In this study the effects of five antifouling biocides on the settlement and growth of Ulva lactuca zoospores were investigated. The biocides investigated were copper (Cu2+), 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-3(2H)-isothiazolone (DCOIT), triphenylborane pyridine (TPBP), tolylfluanid and medetomidine. Full concentration–response curves where determined for each compound. EC50 values were determined for copper, DCOIT, TPBP and tolylfluanid, all of which inhibited settlement and growth in a concentration dependent manner with the following toxicity ranking; tolylfluanid (EC50 80 nmol L−1) ~ DCOIT (EC50 83 nmol L−1) > TPBP (EC50 400 nmol L−1) > Cu2+ (EC50 2,000 nmol L−1). Medetomidine inhibited settlement and growth only at the extreme concentration of 100,000 nmol L−1 (93 % effect). The low toxicity is possibly a consequence of a lack of receptors that medetomidine can bind to in the U. lactuca zoospores.
KeywordsAntifouling Ulva Biocide Reproductive body Marine macroalgae Toxicity
The study was funded by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research, MISTRA (research programme Marine Paint), and by the foundation Birgit och Birger Wåhlströms Minnesfond för den bohuslänska havs- och insjömiljön. We thank Rohm and Haas Company (presently Dow Chemicals), I-tech and Lanxess for providing biocides. Please note, the companies had no influence on the actual work or on the interpretation of the results. We also acknowledge the staff at Sven Lovén Centre for Marine Sciences.
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