In the present study, we investigated the distribution of 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEs) and organochlorine pesticides (DDE/DDT) in water and sediment samples in the Eastern Anatolia of Turkey, Lake Van, which is the largest soda lake in the world. The procedure consisted of solid phase extraction performed with OASIS HLB cartridges followed by non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The endocrine disrupting compounds E2, EE2, and DDT/DDE were detected in most of the lake samples with mean concentrations of 0.996 ± 0.304, 0.050 ± 0.022, and 0.749 ± 0.658 ng/L in water, respectively. Mean concentrations of E2, EE2 and DDT/DDE in sediment were 0.098 ± 0.053, 0.091 ± 0.072, and 1.281 ± 0.754 ng/g, respectively. APEs were not measured in the sediment samples. The EDCs levels in surface water and sediment samples were lower than that of other countries. The EDCs were also found in effluent and influent municipal sewage samples. Van city municipal wastewater treatment plant has no removal efficiency for EDCs.
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This study was supported by Directorate of Scientific Research Projects of Yüzüncü Yıl University (Grant No. 2010-FED-B032). The authors kindly thank Van WWTP personnel for providing wastewater and sludge samples.
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Oğuz, A.R., Kankaya, E. Determination of Selected Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Lake Van, Turkey. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 91, 283–286 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-013-1036-1
- Endocrine disruptors
- Phenolic compounds
- Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
- Lake Van