Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Assessment of Metal Concentrations in Sediments from Lake Bafa (Western Anatolia): An Index Analysis Approach

  • 355 Accesses

  • 15 Citations

Abstract

Metals, organic carbon contents were determined in surficial and core sediment samples from Lake Bafa, Western Anatolia in 2010. The ranges of Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Zn and Hg contents of sediments from the Bafa Lake were 9.4–35 gkg−1, 250–780, 2.3–20, 5.8–55, 1.2–480, 63–278, 26.6–79.9 and 0.013–0.273 mg kg−1, respectively. The mean metal concentrations in surficial sediments obtained in this study decreased in the following order; Fe > Mn > Ni > Cr > Zn > Cu > Pb > Hg for Bafa lake. Total organic carbon concentrations of the bottom sediments from the Bafa Lake varied between 0.35 % and 3.58 %. The mean concentrations of metal were lower than the background levels in earth crust except Cr and Ni in the core sediments. The metal levels were evaluated according to the New Geo-accumulation Index, enrichment and contamination factors. The results confirmed that the Bafa Lake is not facing serious environmental pollution risk due to metal contamination except Hg. The levels of Cr, Ni, Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn generally appear to be uniformly distributed with depth except Hg and Pb due to anthropogenic sources in the core sediments.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Akcay H, Oguz A, Karapire C (2003) Study of heavy metal pollution and speciation in Buyuk Menderes and Gediz River sediments. Water Res 37:813–822

  2. Altindag A, Yigit S (2005) Assessment of heavy metal concentrations in the food web of lake Beyşehir, Turkey. Chemosphere 60:552–556

  3. Bardarudeen T, Damodaran KT, Sajan K et al (1996) Texture and geochemistry of the sediments of a tropical mangrove ecosystem, Southwest coast of India. Environ Geol 27:164–169

  4. Caeiro S, Costa MH, Ramos TB, Fernandes F, Silveira N, Coimbra A, Medeiros G, Painho M (2005) Assessing heavy metal contamination in Sado Estuary sediment: An index analysis approach. Ecol Indic 5(2):151–169

  5. Carvalho S, Moura A, Gaspar MB, Pereira P, Cancela da Fonseca L, Falcao M, Drago T, Leitao F, Regala J (2005) Spatial and inter-annual variability of the macrobenthic communities within a coastal lagoon (Obidos lagoon) and its relationship with environmental parameters. Oceanol Acta 27:143–159

  6. Ergin M, Bodur MN, Ediger V, Yemenicioglu S, Okyar M, Kubilay NN (1993) Sources and dispersal of heavy metals in surface sediments along the eastern Aegean shelf. Boll Oceanologia Teor Appl XI(1):27–44

  7. Esen E, Kucuksezgin F, Uluturhan E (2008) Assessment of trace metal pollution in surface sediments of Nemrut Bay. Aegean Sea. Environ Monit Assess 160(1–4):257–266

  8. HACH (1988) Procedure water and waste water analysis. Publication 3061

  9. Hakanson L (1980) Ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control, a sedimentological approach. Water Res 14:975–1001

  10. Hakanson L, Jansson M (1983) Principles of Lake Sedimentology. Springer, Berlin

  11. Hu X, Wang C, Zou L (2011) Characteristics of heavy metals and Pb isotopic signatures in sediment cores collected from typical urban shallow lakes in Nanjing, China. J Environ Manage 92:742–748

  12. Karadede H, Unlu E (2000) Concentrations of some heavy metals in water, sediment and fish species from the Atatürk Dam Lake (Euphrates), Turkey. Chemosphere 41:1371–1376

  13. Müllenhoff M, Handl M, Knipping M, Brückner H (2004) The evolution of Lake Bafa (Western Turkey)–Sedimentological, microfaunal and palynological results. Coastline Rep 1:55–66

  14. Naidu S, Blanchard A, Kelley JJ, Goering JJ, Hameedi MJ, Baskaran M (1997) Heavy metals in Chukchi Sea sediments as compared to selected circum-Arcticshelves. Mar Pollut Bull 35:260–269

  15. Nguyena HL, Leermakersa M, Osánc J, Tfrfkc S, Baeyensa W (2005) Heavy metals in Lake Balaton: water column, suspended matter, sediment and biota. Sci Tot Environ 340:213–230

  16. Nriagu JO (1988) A silent epidemic of environmental metal poisoning. Environ Pollut 50:139–161

  17. Ozmen H, Kulahci F, Cukurovali A, Dogru M (2004) Concentrations of heavy metal and radioactivity in surface water and sediment of Hazar Lake (Elazığ, Turkey). Chemosphere 55:401–408

  18. Ruiz F (2001) Trace metals in estuarine sediments from the South-western Spanish Coast. Mar Pollut Bull 42:482–490

  19. Salomons W, Fostner V (1984) Metals in the hydrocycle, pp 63–93

  20. Turekian KK, Wedepohl KH (1961) Distribution of the elements in some major units of the earth crust. Geol Soc Am Bull 72:175–192

  21. Yener G, Yıldız N (2010) Van Gölü’nde Sediment Birikim Hızı, Radyoaktif ve Ağır Metal Kirliliğinin Tarihlemesi. Ekoloji 19:80–87 (In Turkish)

  22. Yilgor A (2009) Heavy metal pollution in the Büyük Menderes River sediments and the effects to the delta. PhD Thesis, Institute of Marine Sciences and Technology (In Turkish)

  23. Yilgor S (2011) Investigation of heavy metal pollution in the sediments from Lake Bafa (Western Anatolia). PhD Thesis, Institute of Marine Sciences and Technology (In Turkish)

  24. Zhang L, Ye X, Feng H, Jing Y, Ouyang T, Yu X (2007) Heavy metal contamination in western Xiamen Bay sediments and its vicinity, China. Mar Pollut Bull 54:974–982

  25. Zheng YM, Liu YR, Hu HQ, He JZ (2008) Mercury in soils of three agricultural experimental stations with long-term fertilization in China. Chemosphere 72:1274–1278

Download references

Acknowledgments

Financial support by the Turkish Scientific and Technical Research Council (TUBITAK) (Grant No: 110Y002) for this work is gratefully appreciated. We would like to thank Res. Assist. Can EYTEMIZ and Suheda EDREMIT for bathymetric survey and also to thank Gamze KORDACI for assistance during the sediment sampling.

Author information

Correspondence to Filiz Kucuksezgin.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Yilgor, S., Kucuksezgin, F. & Ozel, E. Assessment of Metal Concentrations in Sediments from Lake Bafa (Western Anatolia): An Index Analysis Approach. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 89, 512–518 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-012-0699-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Metals
  • Lake sediment
  • Enrichment factor
  • Contamination factor
  • New Geo-accumulation Index
  • Bafa Lake (Western Anatolia)