Spatial Distribution and Temporal Trend in Concentration of Carbofuran, Diazinon and Chlorpyrifos Ethyl Residues in Sediment and Water in Lake Naivasha, Kenya

  • Peter O. Otieno
  • Karl-Werner Schramm
  • Gerd Pfister
  • Joseph O. Lalah
  • Stephen O. Ojwach
  • Munir Virani


Chlorpyrifos ethyl was found to be widely distributed in water and sediment in Lake Naivasha. Higher levels were reported in sediment (11.2–30.0 ng g−1 dry weight (dw) in wet season than in dry season (4.7–17.4 ng g−1 dw). The mean concentration of chlorpyrifos ethyl in water in wet season ranged between 8.8 and 26.6 μg L−1 and decreased to between below detection limit to 14.0 μg L−1 in dry season. On average, higher concentrations of chlorpyrifos ethyl were observed in sediment than water samples. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in concentration between the seasons, and a significant interaction between seasons and mean concentrations at p ≤ 0.05. However, levels of diazinon and carbofuran were below the detection limit in all the samples analyzed. Notably, levels of chlorpyrifos ethyl were higher than the maximum allowable limits (0.1 μg L−1) recommended by European Union for drinking water and general water quality criterion for protection of freshwater water organisms (0.083 μg L−1).


Lake Naivasha Pesticides Horticultural farming Water Sediment 



The authors of this paper sincerely thank Alexander von Humboldt Foundation for awarding Peter Otieno the International Climate Protection fellowship at the Institute of Ecological Chemistry, German National Centre for Environmental Health in Germany.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter O. Otieno
    • 1
    • 2
  • Karl-Werner Schramm
    • 2
    • 3
  • Gerd Pfister
    • 2
  • Joseph O. Lalah
    • 4
  • Stephen O. Ojwach
    • 1
  • Munir Virani
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryMaseno UniversityMasenoKenya
  2. 2.Institute of Ecological Chemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum MünchenGerman National Research Centre for Environmental HealthNeuherbergGermany
  3. 3.Department für BiowissenschaftenTUM, Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan für Ernährung und LandnutzungFreisingGermany
  4. 4.Department of Chemical Sciences and TechnologyKenya Polytechnic University CollegeCity Square, NairobiKenya
  5. 5.The Peregrine FundBoiseUSA
  6. 6.Ornithology Section, Department of ZoologyNational Museum of KenyaNairobiKenya

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