Lead, Zn, and Cd in vegetables/crops were investigated in a zinc smelting region in China, and their daily dietary intake by local residents was estimated. It is observed that Pb, Zn, and Cd were in 34.7–91.1, 242–575, and 0.199–2.23 μg g−1 dry weight in vegetables/crops with their greatest concentrations in leafy vegetable. The daily dietary intake of Pb, Zn, and Cd by adult residents reached 3, 646, 59,295, and 186 μg day, respectively, and lettuce and cabbage together contributed 75% of the Pb, 50% of the Zn, and 70% of the Cd.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Bi X, Feng X, Yang Y, Li X, Shin G, Li F, Qiu G, Li G, Liu T, Fu Z (2009) Allocation and source attribution of lead and cadmium in maize (Zea mays L.) impacted by smelting emissions. Environ Pollut 157:834–839
Cuadrado C, Kimpulainen J, Moreiras O (1995) Lead, cadmium and mercury contents in average Spanish market baskets from Galicia, Valencia, Andalucia and Madrid. Food Chem Toxicol 12:107–118
Demirezen D, Aksoy A (2006) Heavy metal levels in vegetables in Turkey are within safe limits for Cu, Zn, Ni, and exceeded for Cd and Pb. J Food Qual 29:252–265
Lee H, Cho Y, Park S, Kye S, Kim B, Hahm T, Kim M, Lee J, Kim C (2006) Dietary exposure of the Korean population to arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury. J Food Compost Anal 19:S31–S37
Li X, Ke C (1985) Environmental effect of Cd around an open lead and zinc mining pit. Stud Trace Elem Health 3:43–47
MacIntosh DL, Spengler JD, Ozkaynak H, Tsai L, Ryan B (1996) Dietary exposures to selected metals and pesticides. Environ Health Perspect 104:202–209
Ministry of Health of the People’s Republic of China (MHC) (1991) National Standard of the People’s Republic of China: tolerance limit of zinc in foods. GB 13106–1991
Ministry of Health of the People’s Republic of China (MHC) (2005) National Standard of the People’s Republic of China: maximum levels of contaminants in foods. GB 2762–2005
Santos EE, Lauria DC, Porto da Silveira CL (2004) Assessment of daily intake of trace elements due to consumption of foodstuffs by adult inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro city. Sci Total Environ 327:69–79
Sipter E, Rozsa E, Gruiz K, Tatrai E, Morvai V (2008) Site-specific risk assessment in contaminated vegetable gardens. Chemosphere 71:1301–1307
Uzu G, Sobanska S, Sarret G, Munoz M, Dumat C (2010) Foliar lead uptake by lettuce exposed to atmospheric fallouts. Environ Sci Technol 44:1036–1042
WHO 250 (2009) Lead (WHO Food Additives Series 4). 10-01-09. http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v004je03.htm. Accessed 10 Aug 2010
WHO 553 (2009) Zinc (WHO Food Additives Series 17). 10-01-09. http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v17je33.htm. Accessed 10 Aug 2010
WHO 659 (2009) Cadmium (WHO Food Additives Series 24). 10-01-09. http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v024je09.htm. Accessed 10 Aug 2010
Wu S (2001) Effect of environmental Pb pollution on children intelligence quotient. Stud Trace Elem Health 18:88–90
Yasar U, Ozyigit I (2009) Use of human hair as a potential biomonitor for zinc in the Pendik District Istanbul Turkey. Rom Biotechnol Lett 14:4477–4484
Ysart G, Miller P, Crews H, Robb P, Baxter M, De L’Argy C, Lofthouse S, Sargent C, Harrison N (1999) Dietary exposure estimates of 30 elements from the UK total diet study. Food Addit Contam 16:391–403
Zheng N, Wang Q, Zhang X, Zheng D, Zhang Z, Zhang S (2007) Population health risk due to dietary intake of heavy metals in the industrial area of Huludao city, China. Sci Total Environ 387:96–104
This study was funded in part by One Hundred Talent Plan of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), ‘Western Light’ Project of the CAS and Guizhou Province, and the Renovation Group Program of the National Nature Science Foundation of China (No. 40721002).
About this article
Cite this article
Yang, Y., Li, F., Bi, X. et al. Lead, Zinc, and Cadmium in Vegetable/Crops in a Zinc Smelting Region and its Potential Human Toxicity. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 87, 586 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-011-0388-7
- Heavy metals
- Daily dietary intake
- Dietary habit